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notes

MAIN PAGE: DEREK FREEMAN: MARGARET MEAD AND SAMOA

Notes

A Note on Orthography and Pronunciation

Glossary

Acknowledgments

Index

Notes

Preface

1. K. R. Popper in B. Magee, ed., Modern British Philosophy (London, 1971), 73; K. R. Popper, Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge (London, 1969), 112; idem, The Logic of Scientific Discovery (London, 1977), 314; idem, Objective Knowledge: An Evolutionary Approach (Oxford, 1972), 263.

1. Galton, Eugenics, and Biological Determinism

1. „A Conversation with Margaret Mead and T. George Harris on the Anthropological Age,“ Psychology Today 4 (1970): 62.

2. N. Pastore, The Nature-Nurture Controversy (New York, 1949); S. A. Rice, „Biological Limits in the Development of Society,“ Journal of Heredity 15 (1924): 183; H. M. Parshley, „Heredity and

the Uplift,“ American Mercury 1 (1924): 222; J. B. Watson, „What is Behaviorism?“ Harper's Magazine 152 (1926): 729.

3. M. Mead, From the South Seas (New York, 1939), ix; idem, Coming of Age in Samoa (New York, 1973), 197.

4. Mead, Coming of Age, 197; F. Boas, Anthropology and Modern Life (New York, 1928), 187; M. Mead, Social Organization of Manu'a (Honolulu, 1930), 83; F. Boas, „Eugenics,“ Scientific Monthly 3 (1916): 476.

5. Boas, „Eugenics,“ 472; P. Popenoe, „Nature or Nurture?“ Journal of Heredity 6 (1915): 238; E. M. Elderton and K. Pearson, The Relative Strength of Nurture and Nature (London, 1915), 58; H. F. Osborn, preface (dated 13 July 1916) in M. Grant, The Passing of the Great Race (London, 1921, 4th rev. ed.), viii.

6. F. Boas, Anthropology (New York, 1908), 6, 27; C. W. Sa-leeby, Parenthood and Race Culture: An Outline of Eugenics (London, 1909); ix; Boas, „Eugenics,“ 472; idem, „Inventing a Great Race,“ New Republic 9 (1917): 305.

7. A. L. Kroeber, „The Superorganic,“ American Anthropologist 19 (1917): 163; R. H. Lowie, Culture and Ethnology (New York, 1917).

8. H. F. Osborn, preface, in Grant, The Passing of the Great Race, vii; A. Weismann, Studies in the Theory of Descent (London, 1882), I, xv; C. Darwin, The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (Harmondsworth, 1968, orig. 1859), 458; D. W. Forrest, Francis Galton: The Life and Work of a Victorian Genius (London, 1974), 84.

9. K. Pearson, The Life, Letters and Labours of Francis Galton, I (Cambridge, 1914), plate II; II (Cambridge, 1924), 70, C. P. Blacker, Eugenics: Galton and After (London, 1952), 110; F. Galton, „Hereditary Talent and Character,“ Macmillan's Magazine 12 (1865): 157-166, 318-327.

10. Galton, „Hereditary Talent and Character,“ 322.

11. Ibid., 323; Pearson, Life, Letters and Labours, I, 7; n, 83ff.

12. Pearson, Life, Letters and Labours, H, 86: F. Galton, Hereditary Genius (London, 1892, orig. 1869), 325; idem, „Hereditary Talent and Character,“ 325.

13. Galton, „Hereditary Talent and Character,“ 325; idem, Hereditary Genius, 328.

14. F. Galton, „Hereditary Improvement,“ Fraser's Magazine 7 (1873) : 116; idem, English Men of Science: Their Nature and Nurture (London, 1874), 12. In The Tempest, act IV, scene 1, Prospero describes Caliban as „a devil, a born devil, on whose nature, nurture can never stick.“

15. F. Galton, Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development (London, 1907, orig. 1883), 217; R H. Lowie, „Applied Psychology,“ The Freeman 1 (1920): 92.

16. Galton, „Hereditary Talent and Character,“ 166; idem, „Hereditary Improvement,“ 120; idem, Inquiries into Human Faculty, 220. The name Galton first gave to his scheme for hereditary improvement was viticulture. In 1883 he replaced viticulture with the term eugenics, derived from the Greek eugenes, meaning good in stock, hereditarily endowed with noble qualities, which was, he thought, a „neater“ word.

17. Pearson, Life, Letters, and Labours, I, 6; idem, „Some Recent Misinterpretations of the Problem of Nurture and Nature,“ in E. M. Elderton and K. Pearson, The Relative Strength of Nature and Nurture (London, 1915) 30; C. Darwin, The Descent of Man (London, 1901, orig. 1871), 945.

18. For a fuller account of these events see D. Freeman, „The Evolutionary Theories of Charles Darwin and Herbert Spencer,“ Current Anthropology 15 (1974): 216.

19. E. Romanes, ed., The Life and Letters of George John Romanes (London, 1896), 238 ff.; G. J. Romanes, „Mr. Wallace on Darwinism,“ Contemporary Review 63 (1889): 248.

20. T. H. Huxley, Evolution and Ethics and Other Essays (London, 1894), 37.

21. B. Kidd, Social Evolution (London, 1898,3rd ed.), 339; A. R. Wallace, „Human Selection,“ Fortnightly Review 48 (1890): 325.

22. F. Galton, „The Possible Improvement of the Human Breed under the Existing Conditions of Law and Sentiment,“ Annual Report of Smithsonian Institution for 1901 (1902), 538; cf. Nature, 1 November 1901.

23. Huxley, Evolution and Ethics, 37,83.

24. E. R. Lank ester, „The Significance of the Increased Size of the Cerebrum in Recent as Compared with Extinct Mammalia,“ Nature 61 (1901): 624; idem, Science from an Easy Chair (London, 1908), 101.

25. Pearson, Life, Letters and Labours, II1A (1930), 217, 412, 435; Galton, „The Possible Improvement of the Human Breed,“ 534, 538.

26. F. Galton, Probability, The Foundation of Eugenics (Oxford 1907), 7.

27. K. Pearson, The Scope and Importance to the State of the Science of National Eugenics (London, 1909), 44 ff.; Galton, Probability, 30; C. W. Saleeby, Parenthood and Race Culture: An Outline of Eugenics (London, 1909), ix.

28. Pearson, Life, Letters and Labours, IIIA, 235; „Francis Galton,“ American Breeders Magazine 2 (1911): 62; M. H. Haller, Eugenics: Hereditarian Attitudes in American Thought (New Brunswick, 1963), 62.

29. C. B. Davenport, „Report of Committee on Eugenics,“ American Breeders Magazine 1 (1910): 129; idem, Heredity in Relation to Eugenics (New York, 1911), 271.

30. E. Radl, The History of Biological Theories (London, 1930, orig. 1909), 388; R. Pearl, „Recent Discussions of Heredity,“ The Dial 52 (1912): 397; J. A. Thomson, review of The Methods and Scope of Genetics by W. Bateson, Eugenics Review 1 (1910): 60.

31. R. Pearl, „Controlling Man's Evolution,“ The Dial 53 (1912): 49; Haller, Eugenics, 94.

32. K. Pearson, Francis Galton, 1822-1911: A Centenary Appreciation (Cambridge, 1922), 17; idem, Nature and Nurture: The Problem of the Future (London, 1913, orig. 1910), 27.

33. F. Boas, The Mind of Primitive Man (New York, 1938, orig. 1911), 41; M. Crackenthorpe, „Sir Francis Galton, F.R.S.: A Memoir,“ Eugenics Review 3 (1911): 8.

2. Boas and the Distinction between Culture and Heredity

1. A. L. Kroeber, „Franz Boas: The Man,“ Memoirs, American Anthropological Association 61 (1943): 21; R. H. Lowie, „Science,“ in H. E. Stearns, ed., Civilization in the United States (New York, 1922), 154; idem, review of Race, Language and Culture by F. Boas, Science 91 (1940): 599; A. Goldenweiser, „Recent Trends in American Anthropology,“ American Anthropologist 43 (1941): 153.

2. F. Boas, „The Mind of Primitive Man,“ Journal of American Folk-Lore 14 (1901): 3; L. Spier, „Some Central Elements in the Legacy,“ in W. Goldschmidt, ed., The Anthropology of Franz Boas, Memoirs, American Anthropological Association 89 (1959): 147.

3. E. Haeckel, „Professor Haeckel on Darwin, Goethe and Lamarck,“ Nature 26 (1882): 534,541; „Haeckel's History of Creation,“ Nature 13 (1875): 122; A. Lane-Fox Pitt-Rivers, „On the Evolution of Culture,“ in J. L. Myres, ed., The Evolution of Culture and Other Essays (Oxford, 1906; orig. 1875), 24.

4. F. Boas, „The Methods of Ethnology“ (1920), in F. Boas, Race, Language and Culture (New York, 1940), 281; E. B. Tylor, Primitive Culture (London, 1929; orig. 1871), I, 2; F. Boas, „The Aims of Ethnology“ (1889), in Race, Language and Culture, 637.

5. F. Galton, „Hereditary Improvement,“ Eraser's Magazine 7 (1873): 128; F. Boas, „An Anthropologist's Credo,“ The Nation 147 (1938): 201; C. Wittke, Refugees of Revolution: The Germany Forty-Eighters in America (Philadelphia, (1952), 18.

6. Boas is quoted in G. W. Stocking, Race, Culture and Evolution (New York, 1968), 149,143; C. Kluckhohn and 0. Prüfer, „Influences During the Formative Years,“ in W. Goldschmidt, ed., The Anthropology of Franz Boas, Memoirs, American Anthropological Association 89 (1959): 6.

7. J. E. Smith, „The Question of Mao“ in C. Hendel, ed., The Philosophy of Kant and Our Modern World (New York, 1957), 20.

8. H. A. Hodges, Wilhelm Dilthey (London, 1944), 82.

9. Stocking, Race, Culture, and Evolution, 138 (Stocking suggests that it may have been during this year at Berlin that Boas read, or perhaps even heard, Dilthey); Boas, „An Anthropologist's Credo,“ 201.

10. Boas, „An Anthropologist's Credo,“ 201; idem, „The Aims of Ethnology,“ 638.

11. Boas, „An Anthropologist's Credo,“ 202; idem, „A Journey in Cumberland Sound and on the West Side of Davis Strait in 1883 and 1884,“ American Geographical Society Bulletin 16 (1884): 271; Stocking, Race, Culture, and Evolution, 148.

12. The use of „exogenetic“ in this context as a synonym for „cultural“ is warranted in that Boas later used the term „exogene“ to refer to cultural processes: cf. F. Boas, „The Question of Racial Purity,“ American Mercury 3 (1924): 164. For further information on the term exogenetic see D. Freeman, „Sociobiology: The 'Antidiscipline' of Anthropology,“ in A. Montagu, ed., Sociobiology Examined (New York, 1980), 216.

13. R. Virchow, „The Liberty of Science in the Modem State,“ Nature 17 (1877): 72; E. Haeckel, Freedom in Science and Teaching (London, 1879), 7.

14. F. Boas, „Rudolf Virchow's Anthropological Work,“ Science 16 (1902): 441; Kroeber, „Franz Boas: The Man,“ 10; P. Radin, „The Mind of Primitive Man,“ New Republic 98 (1939): 303.

15. F. Boas, „Race,“ Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences 13 (1934): 34; idem, „Psychological Problems in Anthropology,“ American Journal of Psychology 21 (1910): 373.

16. T. Waitz, Introduction to Anthropology (London, 1863), 3.

17. Ibid., 74; E. Becker, The Lost Science of Man (New York, 1971), 113.

18. Stocking, Race, Culture and Evolution, 184; Kroeber, „Franz Boas: The Man,“ 7; Kluckhohn and Prufer, „Influences During the Formative Years,“ 22; F. Boas, „The Aims of Anthropological Research“ (1932), in Race, Language and Culture, 246; idem, The Mind of Primitive Man (New York, 1911), 64, 75; idem, „The Aims of Ethnology,“ 633; idem, Changes in the Bodily form of Descendants of Immigrants (Washington, D. C., 1911), 39.

19. Boas, „The Mind of Primitive Man,“ 3; idem, „Human Faculty as Determined by Race,“ Proceedings, American Association for the Advancement of Science 43 (1894): 318.

20. Boas, The Mind of Primitive Man, 43; idem, „The Question of Racial Purity,“ 163.

21. F. Boas, „The Coast Tribes of British Columbia,“ Science 9 (1887): 289; idem, „The Aims of Ethnology,“ 627; idem, „The Growth of Indian Mythologies,“ Journal of American Folk-Lore 9 (1896): 11; idem, „On Alternating Sounds,“ American Anthropologist 2 (1889): 47; Stocking, Race, Culture, and Evolution, 159.

22. F. Boas, „The Limitations of the Comparative Method in Anthropology,“ Science 4 (1896): 908; idem, „The Mind of Primitive Man,“ 5.

23. Boas, „The Mind of Primitive Man,“ 3; W. K. C. Guthrie, The Sophists (Cambridge, 1971), 21; C. Lévi-Strauss, „Rousseau, Father of Anthropology,“ UNESCO Courier 3 (1963): 11.

24. R. H. Lowie, The History of Ethnological Theory (New York, 1937), 17; F. Boas, The Mind of Primitive Man, 42.

25. Boas, The Mind of Primitive Man, 231; Stocking, Race, Culture, and Evolution, 264.

26. C. B. Davenport, Heredity in Relation to Eugenics (New York, 1911), iv; idem, „Euthenics and Eugenics,“ Popular Science Monthly 78 (1911): 20.

27. Davenport, „Euthenics and Eugenics,“ 18.

3. The Launching of Cultural Determinism

1. R. Pearl, „Genetics and Eugenics,“ Eugenics Review 3

(1911): 335; idem, „Controlling Man's Evolution,“ The Dial, 53

(1912): 49; K. Pearson, The Groundwork of Eugenics (London, 1912), 49.

2. L. S. Heamshaw, Cyril Burt, Psychologist (London, 1979), 23; C. Burt, „The Inheritance of Mental Character,“ Eugenics Review 4 (1912): 200; M. Mead, „1925-1939,“ in M. Mead, From the South Seas (New York, 1939), x.

3. Pearl, „Controlling Man's Evolution,“ 49; C. B. Davenport, „Euthenics and Eugenics,“ Popular Science Monthly 78 (1911): 20; „The Eugenics Record Office,“ Science 39 (1913): 553; C. E. Rosenberg, „Charles Benedict Davenport and the Beginning of Human Genetics,“ Bulletin of the History of Medicine 35 (1961): 270,217; C. B. Davenport, „Heredity of Some Emotional Traits,“ Report, Eighty-Fourth Meeting, British Association for the Advancement of Science, Australia, 1914 (London, 1915), 419; idem, „Heredity, Culpability, Praiseworthiness, Punishment and Reward,“ Popular Science Monthly 83 (1913): 36.

4. L. Darwin, review of Hereditary Genius by Sir Francis Gal-ton, Eugenics Review 6 (1914): 251; E. M. Elderton and K. Pearson, The Relative Strength of Nature and Nurture (London, 1915), 30; Rosenberg, „Charles Benedict Davenport,“ 273.

5. H. F. Osborn, preface in M. Grant, The Passing of the Great Race (London, 1921; orig. 1916), viii; R D. Kingham, review of Race Improvement or Eugenics by H. Baker, Eugenics Review 5 (1913): 178; J. A. Lindsay, review of Principles of Eugenics by B. Eames, Eugenics Review 6 (1915): 318; „Eugenics in the Colleges,“ Journal of Heredity 5 (1914): 186; G. H. Parker, „The Eugenics Movement as a Public Service,“ Science 41 (1915): 345; W. C. Rucker, „More 'Eugenic Laws,'“ Journal of Heredity 6 (1915): 219; M. H. Haller, Eugenics: Hereditarian Attitudes in American Thought (New Brunswick, 1963), 150; review of The Passing of the Great Race by M. Grant, Journal of Heredity 8 (1917): 40; M. Mead, preface, 1973 edition, Coming of Age in Samoa (New York, 1973); review of The Progress of Eugenics by C. M. Saleeby, The Nation 100 (1915): 606; P. Popenoe, „Nature or Nurture?“ Journal of Heredity 6 (1915): 227; W. E. Castle et al., Heredity and Eugenics (Chicago, 1912), 309.

6. R H. Lowie, „Alfred Russel Wallace,“ New Republic 9 (1916): 16; A. R. Wallace, „The Origin of Human Races and the Antiquity of Man Deduced from the Theory of Natural Selection “ Journal of the Anthropological Society of London 2 (1864): 187.

7. F. Boas, „Eugenics,“ Scientific Monthly 3 (1916): 417; K. M. Ludmerer, Genetics and American Society: An Historical Appraisal (Baltimore, 1972), 116.

8. A. L. Kroeber, „Inheritance by Magic,“ American Anthropologist 18 (1916): 34; „Anthropology,“ in The New International Year Book (New York, 1918), 32; A. L. Kroeber, „The Superor-ganic,“ American Anthropologist 19 (1917): 176, 189.

9. A. L. Kroeber, The Nature of Culture (Chicago, 1952); idem, „Decorative Symbolism of the Arapaho,“ American Anthropologist 3 (1901): 332.

10. A. L. Kroeber, „The Morals of Uncivilized People,“ American Anthropologist 12 (1910): 437.

11. G. de Beer, Charles Darwin (Melbourne, 1963), 183; Ludmerer, Genetics and American Society, 45; A. R. Wallace, „The Present Position of Darwinism,“ Contemporary Review 94 (1908): 129; H. De Vries, „The Principles of the Theory of Mutation,“ Science 40 (1914): 77; W. Bateson, „Address of the President of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, Melbourne, 14 August, Sydney, 20 August,“ Science 40 (1914): 287, 319; Kroeber, „Inheritance by Magic,“ 27.

12. R H. Lowie, „Theoretical Ethnology,“ Psychological Bulletin 13 (1916): 398; idem, The History of Ethnological Theory (New York, 1937), 200. In 1910, in „The Morals of Uncivilized People,“ Kroeber equated the terms „culture“ and „civilization.“ In his papers published during World War I (as Stocking has noted), „Kroeber's sensitivity to its Germanic associations … prevented him from using the term 'culture,'“ and he spoke instead of „history,“ „civilization“ and „the social.“ G. W. Stocking, Race, Culture and Evolution (New York, 1968), 267.

13. T. Kroeber, Alfred Kroeber: A Personal Configuration (Berkeley, 1970), 90; H. K. Haeberlin, „Anti-Professions,“ American Anthropologist 17 (1915): 768; R. H. Lowie, „Psychology and Sociology,“ American Journal of Sociology 21 (1915): 218; Kroeber, „Inheritance by Magic,“ 29; idem, 'Heredity without Magic,' American Anthropologist 18 (1916): 294.

14. Kroeber, „Heredity without Magic,“ 295; idem, The Nature of Culture, 9.

16. Kroeber, „Inheritance by Magic,“ 26; G. H. Parker, What is Evolution? (Cambridge, Mass., 1926, orig. 1925), 97.

16. A. G. Webster, „Annual Meeting of the National Academy of Sciences,“ The Nation 100 (1915): 475; Т. H. Morgan, A. H. Sturte-vant, H. J. Muller, and С. B. Bridges, The Mechanism of Mendelian Heredity (New York, 1915); E. Huntington, „Heredity and Human Responsibility,“ Yale Review 6 (1917): 668; К M. Ludmerer, Genetics and American Society (Baltimore, 1972), 34.

17. E. G. Conklin, Heredity and Environment in the Development of Man (Princeton, 1930, orig. 1915), 125.

18. R. H. Lowie, „The Universalist Fallacy,“ New Republic 13 (1917): 4. Ernst Haeckel had from the 1870s vehemently advocated a „monistic explanation of the whole,“ and for Lowie Haeckel was „the Hotspur prophet of the evolutionary faith.“ A. L. Kroeber, „The Superorganic,“ American Anthropologist 19 (1917): 163: idem, The Nature of Culture, 22.

19. Kroeber, „The Superorganic,“ 177.

20. Ibid., 209,213; H. De Vries, „The Principles of the Theory of Mutation,“ Science 40 (1914): 77; Kroeber, The Nature of Culture, 9.

21. R. H. Lowie, Culture and Ethnology (New York, 1919, orig. 1917), 66; „Anthropology,“ The New International Year Book, 32; R. H. Lowie, „The Universalist Fallacy,“ New Republic 13 (1917): 4.

22. A. L. Kroeber, „On the Principle of Order in Civilization as Exemplified by Changes in Fashion,“ American Anthropologist 21 (1919): 263.

23. Kroeber, „The Superorganic,“ 193; R. H. Lowie, The History of Ethnological Theory, 200; E. Leach, Social Anthropology (London, 1982), 31. Inasmuch as it has, in accordance with Durkheimian precept, totally excluded biological variables, social anthropology in Great Britain and elsewhere, despite various differences in emphasis, has operated within the same basic paradigm as American cultural anthropology. E. Sapir, „Do We Need a 'Superorganic?'“ American Anthropologist 19 (1917): 441; idem, letter to Lowie, Ottawa, 10 July 1917, in Letters from Edward Sapir to Robert H. Lowie (n.p., 1965), 25.

24. Stocking, Race, Culture and Evolution, 302,303; R. Darnell, „The Development of American Anthropology, 1879-1920** (Ph.D. diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1969), 421; Kroeber, „The Superorganic,“ 183; T. S. Kuhn, The Essential Tension (Chicago, 1978), 297; L. J. Halle, The Ideological Imagination, (London, 1972), 5.

25. F. Boas, „The Mind of Primitive Man,“ Journal of American Folk-Lore 14 (1901): 11; R. Bunzel, in M. Mead and R. Bunzel, eds., The Golden Age of American Anthropology (New York, 1960), 400; A. Lesser, „Franz Boas,“ in S. Silverman, ed., Totems and Teachers: Perspectives on the History of Anthropology (New York, 1981), 3.

26. W. K. Gregory, „The Galton Society for the Study of the Origin and Evolution of Man,“ Science 49 (1919): 267.

4. Boas Poses an Intractable Problem

L E. Sapir, „Primitive Society,“ The Freeman 1 (1920): 377; R. Darnell. „The Development of American Anthropology, 1879-1920“ (Ph.D. diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1969), xxxxii.

2. Sapir, „Primitive Society,“ 377; idem, „Primitive Humanity and Anthropology,“ The Dial 69 (1920): 532; cf. Mead's remark of 2 June 1975 in her foreword to D. F. Tuzin, The Ilahita Arapesh (Berkeley, 1976), xvii, that she was „suckled on Lowie's Primitive Society“; F. Boas, „Eugenics,“ Scientific Monthly 3 (1916): 476.

3. H. L. Laughlin, „The Relation of Eugenics to Other Sciences,“ Eugenics Review 11 (1919): 53; R. H. Lowie, „The Father of Eugenics,“ The Freeman 1 (1920): 471; „The Second International Congress of Eugenics,“ Journal of Heredity 12 (1921): 219.

4. L Stoddard, The Rising Tide of Color (New York, 1920); F. Boas, „Inventing a Great Race,“ New Republic 9 (1917): 305; idem, „Peoples at War,“ American Journal of Physical Anthropology 1 (1918): 363; M. Grant, „Discussion of Article on Democracy and Heredity,“ Journal of Heredity 10 (1919): 165; idem, The Passing of the Great Race, 4th rev. ed. (London, 1921), 17; H. F. Osborn, „The Second International Congress of Eugenics: Address of Welcome,“ Science 54 (1921): 312; C. B. Davenport, „Research in Eugenics,“ Science 54 (1921): 394.

5. Osborn, „The Second International Congress,“ 313; G. Adami, „The True Aristocracy,“ Eugenics Review 14 (1922): 185.

6. F. Boas, review of The Rising Tide of Color by L. Stoddard, The Nation 111 (1920): 656; Lowie, „The Father of Eugenics,“ 473; Grant, The Passing of the Great Race, 16; Lowie, „Mr. Grant's Apologia,“ The Freeman 4 (1922): 476.

7. F. Boas, review of The Rising Tide of Color, 656; Lowie, „The Father of Eugenics,“ 472.

8. J. B. Watson, „Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It,“ Psychological Review 20 (1913): 158; M. E. Haggerty, review of Behavior by J. B. Watson, Journal of Philosophy 13 (1916): 470; W. R.

Wells, „The Anti-Instinct Fallacy,“ Psychological Review 30 (1923): 229.

9. R. S. Woodworth, „John Broadus Watson, 1873-1958,“ American Journal of Psychology 72 (1959): 305; J. R. Kantor, „A Functional Interpretation of Human Instincts,“ Psychological Review 27 (1920): 52; Z. Y. Kuo, „Giving up Instincts in Psychology,“ Journal of Philosophy 18 (1921): 658; J. R. Kantor, Principles of Psychology (New York, 1924), 172; J. B. Watson, Behaviorism (New York, 1924), 74.

10. Z. Y. Kuo, „A Psychology without Heredity,“ Psychological Review 31 (1924): 438; L. L. Bernard, Instinct A Study in Social Psychology (London, 1924), 524; J. Dewey, Human Nature and Conduct: An Introduction to Social Psychology (New York, 1922), 95.

11. H. M. Parshley, „Heredity and the Uplift,“ American Mercury 1 (1924): 222.

12. F. Boas, „The Question of Racial Purity,“ American Mercury 3 (1924): 163.

13. M. Mead, Blackberry Winter (New York, 1972), 111; A. L Kroeber, „Franz Boas: The Man,“ Memoirs, American Anthropological Association 61 (1943): 15; M. Mead, Anthropologists and What They Do (New York, 1965), 157; idem, An Anthropologist at Work (London, 1959), 4; idem, Ruth Benedict (New York, 1974), 3; idem, „Ruth Benedict,“ International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences 2 (1968): 48. Mead has recorded that from February 1923 she began to know Ruth Benedict not only as a teacher but also as a friend. However, she continued to call her Mrs. Benedict until she got her degree later in 1923 after which „almost imperceptibly“ their relationship became one of colleagues and close friends (Blackberry Winter, p. 115).

14. A. A. Goldenweiser, „The Autonomy of the Social,“ American Anthropologist 19 (1917): 448; E. Sapir, letter to Benedict, Ottawa, 25 June 1922, in Mead, An Anthropologist at Work, 49.

15. R. Benedict, „Nature and Nurture,“ The Nation 118 (1924): 118; idem, 'Toward a'Social Psychology,“ The Nation 119 (1924): 51; A. L. Kroeber, Anthropology (London, 1923), 3.

16. Mead, Blackberry Winter, 113; idem, An Anthropologist at Work, 67; cf. Benedict's entry in her diary on 7 March 1923, after talking with Mead: „she rests me like a padded chair and a fire place.“

17. Mead, Blackberry Winter, 111; W. F. Ogburn, Social Change with Respect to Culture and Original Nature (New York, 1950; orig. 1922), 11; M. Mead, „Retrospects and Prospects,“ in T. Gladwin and W. C. Sturtevant, eds., Anthropology and Human Behavior (Washington, D.C., 1962), 121.

18. Mead, An Anthropologist at Work, 68, 69, 121, 286; idem, Blackberry Winter, 114; idem, „Rank in Polynesia,“ Report, Ninety-Second Meeting, British Association for the Advancement of Science (London, 1924), 421.

19. M. Mead, „Apprenticeship under Boas,“ Memoirs, American Anthropological Association 89 (1959): 42; idem; „Retrospects and Prospects,“ 122; G. S. Hall, Adolescence (New York, 1904), 2 vols.; F. P. Rice, The Adolescent: Development, Relationships and Culture (Boston, 1975), 12; H. L. Mencken, „The Sex Uproar,“ The Nation 119 (1924): 91; M. Mead, Letters from the Field, 1925-1975 (New York, 1977), 19: „I imagine that my age and physique—at about 23 years old I was 5 feet IVi inches tall and weighed 98 pounds—had something to do with his choice.“ It would seem, as Mead has suggested, that Boas chose adolescence as a problem for investigation from his knowledge of, and disagreement with, the writings of G. Stanley Hall. Boas had been associated with Hall at Clark University in 1889-1892. M. Herskovits, Franz Boas (New York, 1953), 13.

20. M. Mead, Letters from the Field, 19; idem, „Apprenticeship under Boas,“ 42; „A Conversation with Margaret Mead and T. George Harris on the Anthropological Age,“ Psychology Today 4 (1970): 62; Mead, Blackberry Winter, 129.

21. Mead, Blackberry Winter, 132.

22. Mead, Letters from the Field, 23; W. Somerset Maugham, The Trembling of a Leaf (London, 1921), 250.

5. Mead Presents Boas with an Absolute Answer

1. M. Mead, Blackberry Winter (New York, 1972), 137; idem, Social Organization of Manu'a (Honolulu, 1969), xviii.

2. M. Mead, Letters from the Field 1925-1975 (New York, 1977), 26.

3. Ibid., 29. R. P. Rohner records in his „Franz Boas: Ethnographer on the Northwest Coast,“ in J. Helm, ed., Pioneers of American Anthropology (Seattle, 1966), 210, that Boas, during his field work on the Northwest Coast of America, rarely lived in an Indian household or community preferring instead to stay „in a hotel or some other public accommodation within walking distance from the village where he wanted to work.“

4. Mead, Letters from the Field, 28.

5. This close chaperoning would have been, although Mead seems to have had no inkling of this, a safeguard against moetotolo, or surreptitious rape, which is always a possibility in a Samoan village; see Chapter 16.

6. Mead, Letters from the Field, 30ff.; idem, Blackberry Winter, 148 ff.; idem, „Field Work in the Pacific Islands, 1925-1967,“ in P. Golde, ed., Women in the Field (Chicago, 1970), 318.

7. Mead, Letters from the Field, 30; idem, Blackberry Winter,

150.

8. H. F. Bryan, American Samoa: A General Report by the Governor (Washington, D.C., 1927), 47 ff.; A. H. Leibowitz, „American Samoa: Decline of a Culture,“ California Western International Law Journal 10 (1980): 220.

9. Bryan, American Samoa, 4 ff.; J. A. C. Gray, Amerika Samoa: A History of American Samoa and Its United States Naval Administration (Annapolis, 1960), 187; Mead, Letters from the Field, 55; A. F. Judd, Expanded notes, ethnology, etc., American Samoa, February 15-April 2,1926; Islands of Tutuila, Ofu, and Ta'u, Mss, Bernice P. Bishop Museum Library, p. 29. In Coming of Age in Samoa (New York, 1973), 266, Mead states that Manu'a, in 1926, was „the most primitive part of Samoa.“ This was not the case. At that time, and up to the advent of the Pacific war of 1941-1946, there were numerous villages in Western Samoa that had had less contact with Western institutions and values than those of Luma, Si'ufaga, and Faleasao, in Manu'a, in which Mead worked.

10. When Mead reached Ta'u in November 1925, she had been learning Samoan for only ten weeks; thenceforward she lived as a member of the Holts' English-speaking household, and her command of the formidable Samoan language, with its complex terminologies derived from rank and ancient tradition, remained far from perfect. For example, in the fifteen words of Mead's Samoan dedication in the first edition of Coming of Age in Samoa in 1928 (which are reprinted in the 1973 Morrow paperback edition) there are no fewer than seven errors, several of them egregious. For a detailed account of the quality of Mead's use of the Samoan language, see D. Freeman, „Social Organization of Manu'a (1930 and 1969) by Margaret Mead: Some Errata,“ Journal of the Polynesian Society 81 (1972): 70-78.

11. In Coming of Age in Samoa Mead used the term „puberty“ as we would now use „menarche.“

12. Mead, Coming of Age, 282.

13. Mead, Blackberry Winter, 151; idem, „Return to Samoa“ Redbook 139 (1972): 29; A. M. Noble, Regulations and Orders for the Government of American Samoa (San Francisco, 1921), 53-Mead, Letters from the Field, 45 ff.

14. Judd, Expanded notes, etc.; Mead, Letters from the Field, 55.

15. In the late nineteenth century, in an abrupt departure from ancient tradition, Margaret Young, who was of part British and part Samoan descent and whose family had acquired local influence, was installed as the Tui, or Queen of Manu'a. Stevenson (The Letters of Robert Louis Stevenson, ed. S. Colvin, London, 1899, II, 338), after a visit to Manu'a in 1894, described her, in a letter to Henry James, as a little slip of a half-caste girl about twenty who sat „all day in a pink gown, in a little white European house with about a quarter of an acre of roses in front of it, looking at the palm-trees on the village street, and listening to the surf.“ The following year, aged only twenty-three, Margaret Young met a tragic death when an overturned kerosene lamp set fire to the mosquito net in which she was sleeping. After this dire event the chiefs of Manu'a ruled that henceforward women would be forbidden from holding chiefly titles and from participating in fono. Mead, like Margaret Young, was given the Samoan name of Makelita, and may well have been identified with her by the Manu'ans; there exists a photograph of Mead in Ta'u, wearing a ceremonial dress woven by Margaret Young, and sitting, in contravention of Samoan custom, on a bonito canoe; cf. M. Mead, „A Lapse of Animism among a Primitive People,“ Psyche 9 (1929): 74: „No woman is permitted to touch a bonito canoe.“

16. Mead, Blackberry Winter, 151; idem, Social Organization of Manu'a, xviii

17. Mead, Social Organization of Maruia, 224 ff.; idem, Blackberry Winter, 156.

18. M. Mead, An Anthropologist at Work: Writings of Ruth Benedict (London, 1959), 292.

19. R. Benedict, 'Toward a Social Psychology,„ The Nation 119 (1924): 51; Mead, An Anthropologist at Work, 202. Mead reports that when Reo Fortune was shown the anthology compiled by Benedict he looked up from Amy Lowell's poem to inquire, „Is that why you are always talking about patterns?“

Notes to Pages 72-80

20. Mead, An Anthropologist at Work, 301; idem, Ruth Benedict (New York, 1974), 34.

21. M. Mead, Anthropologists and What They Do (New York, 1965), 121; idem, An Anthropologist at Work, 208.

22. Mead, Anthropologists and What They Do, 121 ff.

23. Mead, An Anthropologist at Work, 206 ff.; idem, Blackberry Winter, 195; R. Benedict, „Psychological Types in the Cultures of the Southwest“ (1928), in Mead, An Anthropologist at Work, 248 ff.

24. R. Benedict, „The Science of Custom,“ (1929), in V. P. Cal-verton, ed., The Making of Man (New York, 1931), 815; Mead, An Anthropologist at Work, 206 ff.; idem, Blackberry Winter, 196.

25. Benedict, „Psychological Types in the Southwest,“ 261; Mead, Social Organization of Manu'a, 80 ff; idem, Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies (1935), in From the South Seas (New York, 1939), 292.

26. M. Mead, New Lives for Old (New York, 1966), 107; idem, An Anthropologist at Work, 305; idem, Social Organization of Manu'a, 83.

27. M. Mead, „Preface to the 1949 Edition,“ Coming of Age in Samoa (Mentor Books, New York, 1949), ix.

28. Mead, An Anthropologist at Work, 289; idem, „South Sea Hints on Bringing up Children,“ Parents'Magazine 4 (1929): 22.

29. “A Conversation with Margaret Mead and T. George Harris on the Anthropological Age,„ Psychology Today 4 (1970): 66.

30. M. Mead, Interview with A. Kuper, B.B.C., 1976.

31. Mead, Coming of Age, 197.

32. “A Conversation with Margaret Mead,„ Psychology Today, 66; Mead, Blackberry Winter, 121.

33. J. Epstein, Epstein: An Autobiography (London, 1963), 131.

34. Mead, An Anthropologist at Work, 309; idem, Anthropologists and What They Do, 125.

35. F. Boas, foreword, in Mead, Coming of Age, ix; idem, Anthropology and Modern Life (New York, 1928), 186.

36. Mead, An Anthropologist at Work, 310.

37. J. B. Watson, The Ways of Behaviorism (New York, 1928). In Watson's view Freud's theory of the unconscious was „voo-dooism“ and „a substitution of demonology for science“; idem, „The Myth of the Unconscious,“ Harper's Magazine 155 (1927): 729. Rather similar views were held by the Boasians during the 1920s. In March 1926 Benedict (An Anthropologist at Work, 305) wrote to

319

Mead telling her that Malinowski, who had been visiting New York, felt that psychoanalysis, about which he was as skeptical as was Boas, was only for extremists. This same stance is reflected in Mead's writings on Samoa. In Coming of Age (212), she reports that the larger family community seemed to ensure the child „against the development of the crippling attitudes which have been labelled Oedipus complexes, Electra complexes, and so on.“ And in Male and Female (Harmondsworth, 1962), 124, she asserted that „perhaps more sharply than in any known society, Samoan culture demonstrates how much the tragic or easy solution of the Oedipus situation depends upon the inner-relationship between parents and children and is not created out of whole cloth by the young child's biological impulses.“ My own researches in Samoa, during the years 1966-1967, revealed the Oedipus situation to be decidedly present.

38. V. F. Calverton, „The Analysis of Behavior,“ Modern Quarterly 4 (1927): 302.

39. R. L. Finney, „Culture and the Original Nature of Man,“ Journal of Applied Sociology 11 (1927): 343.

40. R. Benedict, „Nature and Nurture,“ The Nation 118 (1924): 118; idem, review of Coming of Age in Samoa, Journal of Philosophy 26 (1929); 110.

6. Mead's Depiction of the Samoans

1. M. Mead, Coming of Age in Samoa (New York, 1973), 8,11; idem, Social Organization of Manu'a (Honolulu, 1930), 55.

2. Mead, Coming of Age, 198; Mead's statement that no great disasters threaten the lives of Samoans is scarcely true, for the Samoan islands are regularly stricken by severe hurricanes. In the hurricane of 10 January 1915, for example, as is recorded by H. F. Bryan in American Samoa (Washington, 1927), 4, the churches, school-houses, stores, and most of the houses of Manu'a were blown down and the greater part of the crops destroyed. Indeed, so severe were the food shortages following this hurricane that over half the population of Manu'a had to be transported to Tutuila and maintained there for several months. Again, on 1 January 1926, during the course of Mead's own stay in Manu'a, there was a severe hurricane which, so she states in Blackberry Winter (New York, 1972), 150, „destroyed every house in the village and ruined the crops.“

3. M. Mead, Male and Female (Harmondswortfa, 1962), 100, 201; idem, Coming of Age, 122,170; idem, „The Role of the Individual in Samoan Culture,“ Journal of the Royal Anthropological In-gtitute 58 (1928): 418; idem, „The Samoans,“ in M. Mead, ed., Cooperation and Competition among Primitive Peoples (New York, 1937), 308; idem, „1925-1939,“ in From the South Seas (New York, 1939), xxvi.

4. M. Mead, An Anthropologist at Work (London, 1969), 547; idem, Anthropologists and What They Do (New York, 1966), 141.

5. M. Mead, Growing Up in New Guinea (1930), in From the South Seas (New York, 1939), 219, 234; idem, „The Samoans,“ 309, 502' idem, „1925-1939,“ xxvi; idem, „Two South Sea Educational Experiments and Their American Implications,“ University of Pennsylvania School of Education Bulletin 31 (1931): 495; idem, Coming of Age, 151,157,158, 200, 207; idem, 'The Role of the Individual in Samoan Culture,“ Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 58 (1928): 494.

6. M. Mead, „Creativity in Cross-Cultural Perspective,“ in H. H. Anderson, ed., Creativity and Its Cultivation (New York, 1959), 225, 231; idem, Male and Female, 123; idem, The Human Condition,„ in R. Metraux, ed., Some Personal Views (New York, 1979), 211.

7. Mead, Male and Female, 120,201; idem, „The Sex Life of the Unmarried Adult in Primitive Society,“ in I. S. Wile, ed., The Sex Life of the Unmarried Adult (London, 1935), 62; idem, „Back of Adolescence lies Early Childhood,“ Childhood Education 18 (1941): 58; idem, „Broken Homes,“ The Nation 128 (1929): 254; idem, „Parents and Children in Samoa,“ Child Study 9 (1932): 232; idem, Growing Up in New Guinea, 239; idem, „South Sea Hints on Bringing Up Children,“ Parents' Magazine 4 (1929): 22; idem, Coming of Age, 213; idem, „Social Change and Cultural Surrogates,“ Journal of Educational Sociology 14 (1940): 96.

8. Mead, „South Sea Hints on Bringing Up Children,“ 50; idem, „Back of Adolescence Lies Early Childhood,“ Childhood Education 18 (1941): 59.

9. Mead, Social Organization of Manu'a, 91; idem, „Samoan Children at Work and Play,“ Natural History 28 (1928): 632; idem, „The Role of the Individual in Samoan Culture,“ 487, 494; idem, Coming of Age, 161.

10. Mead, Male and Female, 99,124, 202.

11. Mead, „Samoan Children at Work and Play,“ 633; idem, Coming of Age, 23,25,159; idem, „The Role of the Individual in Samoan Culture,“ 487.

12. Mead, „The Samoans,“ 302, 308; idem, Male and Female, 201; idem, Coming of Age, 35.

13. M. Mead, „Jealousy: Primitive and Civilized,“ in S. D. Schmalhausen and V. F. Calverton, eds, Woman's Coming of Age: A Symposium (New York, 1931), 43; idem, „The Samoans,“ 304; idem, „Life as a Samoan Girl,“ in All TrueJ The Record of Actual Adventures that Have Happened to Ten Women of Today (New York, 1931), 106; idem, „The Role of the Individual in Samoan Culture,“ 492.

14. Mead, Social Organization of Manu'a, 7; idem, „The Role of the Individual in Samoan Culture,“ 493, 495; idem, „The Samoans,“ 287.

15. Mead, „The Samoans,“ 302, 474; idem, Male and Female, 360; idem, „The Role of the Individual in Samoan Culture,“ 484; idem, Social Organization of Manu'a, 168.

16. M. Mead, Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies (1935), in From the South Seas, 285; idem, Male and Female, 361; idem, „The Role of the Individual in Samoan Culture,“ 494; idem, „Life as a Samoan Girl,“ 99; idem, review of Samoa Under the Sailing Gods by N. A. Rowe, The Nation 133 (1931): 138; idem, Anthropologists and What They Do, 141; idem, Coming of Age, 198.

17. Mead, „The Samoans,“ 304; idem, „The Role of the Individual in Samoan Culture,“ 495; idem, „A Lapse of Animism among a Primitive People,“ Psyche 9 (1928): 77; idem, „Social Change and Cultural Surrogates,“ Journal of Educational Sociology 14 (1940): 96.

18. Mead, Coming of Age, 126,161,164, 277; idem, „Americanization in Samoa,“ American Mercury 16 (1929): 269; idem, Social Organization of Manu'a, 80 and 86; idem, Male and Female, 100, 124.

19. Mead, „Americanization in Samoa,“ 269; idem, „The Sex Life of the Unmarried Adult in Primitive Society,“ 62; idem, Male and Female, 119, 123, 201; idem, Coming of Age, 105, 108, 223; idem, „Jealousy: Primitive and Civilized,“ 43, 46; idem, Social Organization of Manu'a, 84.

20. Mead, „The Samoans,“ 310; idem, „The Sex Life of the Unmarried Adult in Primitive Society,“ 61 ff.; idem, Male and Female, 192; idem, Social Organization of Manu'a, 84; idem, „Cultural Contexts of Puberty and Adolescence,“ Bulletin of the Philadelphia Association for Psychoanalysis 9 (1959): 62; idem, Coming of Age, 33, 153,157.

21. Mead, Male and Female, 201,220; idem, „The Role of the Individual in Samoan Culture,“ 487.

22. M. Mead, „The Primitive Child,“ in C. Murchison, ed, A Handbook of Child Psychology (New York, 1967, orig. 1933), 914; idem, „Adolescence in Primitive and Modem Society,“ in V. P. Cal-verton and S. D. Schmalhausen, eds, The New Generation (London, 1930), 179.

23. M. Mead, „Cultural Contexts of Puberty and Adolescence,“ 62; idem, „The Samoans,“ 308; idem, „Adolescence in Primitive and Modern Society,“ 174; idem, „South Sea Hints on Bringing Up Children,“ 22.

7. The Myth Takes Shape

1. D. Hume, An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding (London, 1809, orig. 1748), II, 86.

2. S. D. Schmalhausen, Our Changing Human Nature (New York, 1929), 481; J. B. Watson and R. Watson, Psychological Care of Infant and Child (London, 1928), 18.

3. The Nation, 6 February 1929; S. Nearing, „The Child in Soviet Russia,“ in V. F. Calverton and S. D. Schmalhausen, eds., The New Generation (London, 1930), 233; E. C. Lindeman, „Is Human Nature changing in Russia?“ Survey Graphic 12 (1933): 142; V. F. Calverton, „Red Love in Soviet Russia,“ Modern Quarterly 4 (1927): 188.

4. V. F. Calverton, The Bankruptcy of Marriage (London, 1928), 21; Mrs. B. Russell, introduction, in B. Lindsey, The Companionate Marriage (New York, 1928), xix; S. D. Schmalhausen, Why We Misbehave (New York, 1928), 14 ff.; idem, „The Sexual Revolution,“ in V. F. Calverton and S. D. Schmalhausen, eds., Sex in Civilization (London, 1929), 354 ff.

5. Schmalhausen, „The Sexual Revolution,“ 391; E. Sapir, „The Discipline of Sex,“ American Mercury 16 (1929): 413.

6. F. Kirchwey, „Sex in the South Seas,“ The Nation 127 (1928): 427; Schmalhausen, Our Changing Human Nature, 8.

7. B. Russell, Marriage and Morals (London, 1958, orig. 1929), 107; H. Ellis, introduction in V. F. Calverton and S. D. Schmalhausen, eds., Sex in Civilization (London, 1929), 25; idem, „Perversion in Childhood and Adolescence,“ in Calverton and Schmalhausen, eds., The New Generation, 543.

8. Calverton and Schmalhausen, eds., The New Generation, 18,

13.

9. J. B. Watson, Behaviorism (New York, 1924), 74; “ 'Physiological Psychology„—A New Variety,“ Journal of Heredity 17 (1926): 362.

10. M. Mead, „Adolescence in Primitive and Modern Society,“ in Calverton and Schmalhausen, eds., The New Generation, 174; R. H. Lowie, review of Coming of Age in Samoa, American Anthropologist 31 (1929): 532; J. H. Driberg, review of Coming of Age in Samoa, Man 29 (1929): 179; B. Malinowski, in The Nation 127 (1928): 402.

11. G. W. Stocking, Race, Culture and Evolution (New York, 1968), 267.

12. E. Erikson, Childhood and Society (Harmondsworth, 1965), 318; G. Dorsey, in The Nation 127 (1928): ii; H. L. Mencken, „Adolescence,“ American Mercury 15 (1928): 379; R. Benedict, „The Younger Generation with a Difference,“ New Republic 57 (1928): 50; idem, review of Coming of Age in Samoa, Journal of Philosophy 26 (1929): 110.

13. R Benedict, Patterns of Culture (London, 1945, orig, 1934), 21; F. Boas, „Race,“ Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences 13 (1934): 34.

14. From the 1920s onward it was common for the Boasians and others to think of culture as being, in the words of Ruth Bunzel, „some kind of mechanical press into which most individuals were poured to be moulded.“ M. Mead and R. Bunzel, eds., The Golden Age of American Anthropology (New York, 1960), 576. In We, the Tikopia (London, 1936, 418), Firth wrote of how „like raw material in a factory the members of a society „come from the furnace, are gripped by different pieces of complicated machinery, are beaten, cut, rolled, twisted, reheated to make an implement fit for social use.“

15. M. Mead, Growing Up in New Guinea, in From the South Seas (New York, 1939), 212; idem, „More Comprehensive Field Methods,“ American Anthropologist 35 (1933): 15; idem, „1925-1939,“ in From the South Seas, x; O. Klineberg, Social Psychology (New York, 1940), 492. Further, as F. L. K. Hsu has noted in „Margaret Mead and Psychological Anthropology,“ American Anthropologist 82 (1980): 349, it was Mead's trilogy of Coming of Age in Samoa, Growing Up in New Guinea, and Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies, together with Benedict's Pattern» of Culture, that „ushered in and firmly established the national-character approaches in psychological anthropology.“

16. L. J. Russell, „Is Anthropology Relevant to Ethics?“ Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Volume, XX (1946): 62; L A. White, The Science of Culture (New York, 1949), 154.

17. M. Mead, Male and Female (Harmondsworth, 1962), 68; idem, „Preface 1961 Edition,“ Coming of Age in Samoa (New York, 1961), 3.

18. “Margaret Mead,„ The Observer, 29 January I960; E. E. Evans-Pritchard, Social Anthropology (London, 1951), 96; M. J. Herskovits, Man and His Works: The Science of Cultural Anthropology (New York, 1950), 44.

19. F. M. Keesing, Modern Samoa: Its Government and Changing Life (London, 1934), 497; W. E. H. Stanner, The South Seas in Transition (Sydney, 1953), 313; L. Trilling, Beyond Culture (London, 1966, orig. 1955), 116.

20. L. D. Holmes, „A Restudy of Manu'an Culture: A Problem in Methodology“ (Ph.D. diss., Northwestern University, 1957).

21. Ibid., 224, 226, 227, 228; L. D. Holmes, Ta'u: Stability and Change in a Samoan Village (Wellington, 1958), 32,41,44,54,56.

22. Holmes, „A Restudy of Manu'an Culture,“ 232.

23. D. T. Campbell, „The Mutual Methological Relevance of Anthropology and Psychology,“ in F. L. K. Hsu, ed., Psychological Anthropology (Homewood, HI., 1961), 340.

24. M. Mead, „Preface to the 1949 Edition,“ Coming of Age in Samoa (Mentor Books, New York, 1949), z; idem, Preface, Coming of Age in Samoa (Modern Library, New York, 1953), 3; idem, „Preface, 1961 Edition,“ Coming of Age in Samoa (Apollo Edition, New York, 1961), 4.

25. J. J. Honigmann, Understanding Culture (New York, 1963), 273; G. M. Carstairs, This Island Now: The B.B.C. Reith Lectures, 1962 (Harmondsworth, 1963), 49; G. Devereux, From Anxiety to Method in the Behavioral Sciences (The Hague, 1967), 196; D. Price-Williams, „Cross-Cultural Studies,“ in B. M. Foes, ed., New Horizons in Psychology (Harmondsworth, 1966), 409; E. L Schusky and T. P. Culbert, Introducing Culture (Englewood Cliffs, NJ„ 1967), iii, 68; „Margaret Mead Today: Mother to the World,“ Time, 21 March 1969, p. 60.

26. M. Mead, „Conclusion, 1969: Reflections on Later Theoretical Work on the Samoans,“ in Social Organization of Manu'a (Honolulu, 1969), 227.

27. In November 1971, en route from New Guinea to New York, Mead made what the Pacific Islands Monthly (December 1971, p. 27) called „a sentimental five day visit“ to American Samoa. During her stay in Ta'u, she dedicated a power plant, and she met many Manu'ans who remembered her as a young researcher. Despite the central importance of Samoa in Mead's anthropological career, she at no time visited the islands of western Samoa.

28. This evidence was conspicuously present in N. A. Rowe, Samoa Under the Sailing Gods (London and New York, 1930); j. Copp and Fa'afouina I. Pula, The Samoan Dance of Life (Boston, 1950); L. H. Holmes, Ta'u: Stability and Change in a Samoan Village (Wellington, 1958); and J. A. C. Gray, Amerika Samoa: A History of American Samoa and Its United States Naval Administration (Annapolis, 1960)—all of which were well known to Mead, for she had reviewed Rowe, Holmes, and Gray, and had written a preface to the account of the realities of Samoan behavior recorded, with the editorial assistance of Copp, by Fa'afouina Pula. Further, when Mead visited the Research School of Pacific Studies of the Australian National University in 1964,1 communicated to her, during a private interview of two and a half hours, on 10 November 1964 (not 1965, as she has it on p. 227 of the 1969 edition of Social Organization of Manu'a), a wide range of ethnographic and historical facts at variance with her own account of Samoa.

29. Various literal inaccuracies in the 1928 text of Coming of Age in Samoa have been repeated in all of the subsequent editions I have inspected.

30. M. H. Fried, The Study of Anthropology (New York, 1972), 5; Anthropology Today (Del Mar, Calif., 1971), 354; E. A. Hoebel, Anthropology: The Study of Man (New York, 1972), 8, 44.

31. E. R Gerber, „The Cultural Patterning of Emotions in Samoa“ (Ph.D. diss., University of California, San Diego, 1975), 126; I would add that I have a high regard for the excellent ethnography of Gerber's dissertation.

32. V. Rubin, „Margaret Mead: An Appreciation,“ Human Organization 38 (1979): 194; Robert A. LeVine, foreword to G. H. Herdt, Guardians of the Flutes (New York, 1981), ix.

g. The Historical Setting of Mead's Research

1. M. Mead, „Preface to the 1949 Edition,“ in Coming of Age in Samoa (Mentor Books, New York, 1949), x; idem, „Preface 1961 Edition,“ in Coming of Age in Samoa (New York, 1961), 4; idem, „Preface 1973 Edition,“ in Coming of Age in Samoa (New York, 1973), 2. In her Preface of 1973 Mead described the 1969 edition of Social Organization of Manu'a as having been „revised in the light of contemporary ethnographic theory.“ In fact the original text of 1930 was reprinted without revision of any kind; see D. Freeman, „Social Organization of Manu'a (1930 and 1969) by Margaret Mead: Some Errata,“ Journal of the Polynesian Society 81 (1972): 70-78. The 1969 edition did however include a new introduction by Mead as well as a conclusion entitled „Reflections on Later Theoretical Work on the Samoans“ in which she dealt with criticisms of her depiction of Samoa.

2. M. Mead, review of Elite Communication in Samoa, by F. M. Keesing and M. M. Keesing, American Anthropologist 60 (1958): 1233.

3. J. Williams, „Narrative of a Voyage Performed in the Missionary Schooner 'Olive Branch,' 1832,“ L.M.S. Archives. (The archives of the London Missionary Society are held in the library of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London).

4. E. Behrens, Reise durch die Siidldnder und urn die Welt (Frankfurt, 1737); L. A. de Bougainville, A Voyage round the World performed in the years 1766, 1767, 1768 and 1769 (London, 1772), 278 ff.; J. F. G. de La P6rouse, A Voyage round the World in the Years 1785, 1786, 1787 and 1788 (London, 1798), m, 61 ff.; E. Edwards and G. Hamilton, Voyage of H.M.S. Pandora Dispatched to Arrest the Mutineers of the Bounty in the South Seas, 1790-1791 (London, 1915), 48 ff.; O. Von Kotzebue, A New Voyage Around the World in the Years 1823,1824,1825 and 1826 (London, 1830), 1,256 ff.; J. Williams, A Narrative of Missionary Enterprises in the South Sea Islands (London, 1837), 324 ff.; G. Turner, Nineteen Years in Polynesia (London, 1861); A. M. Murray, Forty Years' Mission Work in Polynesia and New Guinea from 1835 to 1875 (London, 1876); G. Turner, Samoa A Hundred Years Ago and Long Before (London, 1884); T. Powell, „A Samoan Tradition of the Creation and the Deluge,“ Journal of the Transactions of the Victoria Institute 20 (1887): 145-175; T. Powell and G. Pratt, „Some Folk-Songs and Myths from Samoa,“ Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society

of New South Wales 24-26 (1890-1892); G. Pratt, „The Genealogy 0f the Kings and Princes of Samoa,“ Report, Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science 2 (1890): 655-663; S. Ella, „The Ancient Government of Samoa,“ Report, Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science 6 (1895): 596-603; J. B. Stair, Old Samoa (London, 1897); G. Brown, Melanesians and Polynesians (London, 1910); R P. A. Monfat, Les Premiers Missionnaires des Samoa (Lyon, 1923); C. Wilkes, Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition during the Years 1838-1842 (London, 1845), 5 vols; H. Hale, Ethnography and Philology (Philadelphia, 1846); J. E. Erskine, Journal of a Cruise among the Islands of the Western Pacific (London, 1853); W. T. Pritchard, Polynesian Reminiscences, or Life in the South Pacific Islands (London, 1866); T. Trood, Island Reminiscences (Sydney, 1912); A. P. Maudsley, Life in the Pacific Fifty Years Ago (London, 1930); W. B. Churchward, My Consulate in Samoa (London, 1887); R. L. Stevenson, A Footnote to History: Eight Years of Trouble in Samoa (London, 1892); O. Stue-bel, Samoanische Texte (Berlin, 1895); E. Schultz, „The Most Important Principles of Samoan Family Law, and the Laws of Inheritance,“ Journal of the Polynesian Society 20 (1911): 43-53; A. Krämer, Die Samoa-Inseln (Stuttgart, 1902-1903), 2 vols.

5. R. B. Dixon, review of Melanesians and Polynesians by G. Brown, American Anthropologist 13 (1911): 140; M. Mead, „Conclusion 1969: Reflections on Later Theoretical Work on the Samoans,“ in Social Organization of Manu'a (Honolulu, 1969), 228.

6. M. Mead, „The Samoans,“ in M. Mead, ed., Cooperation and Competition among Primitive Peoples (New York, 1937), 282; Turner, Nineteen Years in Polynesia, 279; B. Shore, „A Samoan Theory of Action: Social Control and Social Order in a Polynesian Paradox (Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 1977), ix.

7. In etymological terms fa'aSamoa means „in the manner of the family of the Tui Manu'a,“ Sä being a particle which is used as a prefix to refer to a family, while Moa is the family name of the Tui Manu'a.

8. American Samoa: Hearings before the Commission Appointed by the President of the United States in Accordance with Public Resolution no. 89, 70th Congress (Washington, D.C., 1931), 26.

9. H. F. Bryan, American Samoa: A General Report by the Governor (Washington, D.C., 1927), 58. For a fuller account of the Mau in Western Samoa, see J. W. Davidson, Samoa mo Samoa: The

Emergence of the Independent State of Western Samoa (Melbourne, 1967), 114 if.

10. M. A. Ripley, „Samoa: Shall we Navalize or Civilize ItT The Nation 122 (1926): 393; F. J. West, Political Advancement in the South Pacific (Melbourne, 1961), 135.

11. J. A. C. Gray, Amerika Samoa: A History of American Samoa and Its United States Naval Administration (Annapolis, 1960), 207 ff.

12. A. F. Judd, Expanded notes, ethnology, etc., American Samoa, February 15-April 2,1926; Islands of Tutuila, Ofu andTa'u,“ p. 9, Bernice P. Bishop Library, Honolulu. Judd subsequently became the legal adviser to the congressional commission that visited American Samoa in 1930 to inquire into the period of unrest that had begun there in 1920.

13. West, Political Advancement, 135. American Samoa: Hearings before the Commission, 26; Western Samoa (Report of the Royal Commission Concerning the Administration of), (Wellington, 1927); Mead, Coming of Age, 198.

14. F. M. Keesing, Modern Samoa (London, 1934), 476; Gray, Amerika Samoa, 236. Mead herself, in a survey of „Samoan civilization“ as it existed in 1926, gave it as her opinion that „given no additional outside stimulus or attempt to modify conditions Samoan culture might remain very much the same for two hundred yean“ (Coming of Age, 273).

15. Kramer, Die Samoa-Inseln; R. P. Gilson, Samoa 1830 to 1900: The Politics of a Multi-Cultural Community (Melbourne, 1970).

16. Buzacott and Barff, when they visited Samoa in 1834 (Journal, L.M.S. Archives), remarked on the „singular government,“ of Samoa with every settlement, or local polity, having its own chiefs. D. Freeman, „The Social Structure of a Samoan Village Community“ (Academic Postgraduate Diploma in Anthropology diss., University of London, 1948); idem, „Some Observations on Kinship and Political Authority in Samoa,“ American Anthropologist 66 (1964): 554.

17. For example (as reported in the Samoa Times of 7 December 1918), Tasea was found guilty by the High Court of Western Samoa of having clubbed another man for having made statements in public about the genealogy of Tasea's family. See also a letter from G. Fa'alava'au (Member of the Legislative Council of Western Samoa) in the Western Samoan Mail of 10 May 1941: „The publication of an adverse version of the genealogy of a rival chief much more than affecting a whole village and involving its highest chiefs was, and is, to the Samoans, an offence the cost of the correction of which is dearer than life.“ Ella, „The Ancient Government of Samoa,“ 598. A number of the genealogies published by Kramer in 1902 contained, at that time, some thirty-two generations.

18. P. H. Buck, in a letter to Sir Apirana Ngata, cited in J. B. Conliffe, Te Rangi Hiroa: The Life of Sir Peter Buck (Christchurch, 1971), 156. Fa'afouina Pula, in The Samoan Dance of Life (Boston, 1950), 112, describes the fa'alupega of Samoan villages as „very, very important“ and adds that „if they are not given perfectly, it will mean a great trouble.“ In pagan times such trouble often meant war.

19. R L. Stevenson, A Footnote to History (London, 1892), 14; G. Pratt, letter dated Matautu, Savai'i, 18 June 1847, L.M.S. Archives; J. Fraser, „Six Solos about the Kava (Plant and Drink),“ Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 25 (1891): 96.

20. G. B. Milner, „The Samoan Vocabulary of Respect,“ Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 91 (1961): 304. Cf. F. Stevenson, Our Samoan Adventure (London, 1956), 182: when Robert Louis Stevenson called on the paramount chief Mata'afa, he was obliged to use as an interpreter his Samoan cook, Talolo, who „nearly expired with fright and misery for he could not speak the high-chief language and felt every word he uttered to be an insult to Mata'afa.“ Schultz, in his Proverbial Expressions of the Samoans (Wellington, 1965), 92, recounts that a titular chief, when his servants persisted in using the common word fepulafi, meaning to stare, instead of the respectful sisila, became so incensed that he killed them.

21. G. Brown, An Autobiography (London, 1898), 32 ff.

22. Cf. G. Turner, Samoa A Hundred Years Ago and Long Before (London, 1884), 175: „The turtle… the best joint, and anything choice is sure to be laid before the chief.“

23. Davidson, Samoa mo Samoa, 19; G. Pratt, letter dated Matautu, Savai'i, 1 Dec. 1842, L.M.S. Archives; J. Williams, A Narrative of Missionary Enterprises in the South Sea Islands (London, 1837), 334. In September 19661 attended a fono of the Va'a-Nofoa-Tolu, comprising the highest-ranking titular chiefs of the 'aiga Tau-lagi, Taua'ana, and Satunumafono, of A'ana and Safata, and their talking chiefs. The talking chiefs, although they were served their food immediately after their titular chiefs, were required to wait to begin eating until all of the titular chiefs had completed their repasts.

24. G. Pratt, „Silia-i-Vao—a Tala,“ Journal of the Polynesian Society 6 (1897): 76.

25. Marsack, Notes, 19.

26. Davidson, Samoa mo Samoa, 19; Schultz, 46.

27. Schultz, „Principles of Samoan Family Law“ 46; Shore, „A Samoan Theory of Action,“ 180.

28. Cf. Brother Herman, trans., Institutions and Customs of the Samoans (Tutuila, 1954), 4: „The seat of the high chief is known to all and strictly forbidden to anyone else.“

29. Fraser and Pratt, „Six Solos about the Kava,“ 106.

30. Cf. J. Fraser, „la le Malaga,“ Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 26 (1892): 293: „In Samoa it is a grievous insult to a chief to omit his name from a list“ (when kava is being distributed).

31. L. D. Holmes, „A Restudy of Manu'an Culture“ (Ph.D. diss., Northwestern University, 1957), 227.

32. Cf. F. A. Young, „Stability and Change in Samoa“ (PhJ). diss., University of Oregon, 1976), 38: „From their early years Samoan children are taught the principle of obedience to parents“; E. R Gerber, „The Cultural Patterning of Emotions in Samoa“ (PhJ). diss., University of California, San Diego, 1975), 37: „Samoans believe that deference and obedience are due to anyone older than oneself“; Shore, „A Samoan Theory of Action,“ 176: „obedience is… a central and explicit Samoan value, especially for children.“

9. Rank

L M. Mead, Blackberry Winter (New York, 1972), 151. The fact that Mead was denied entry to chiefly fonos (as distinct from the social ceremonies associated with the reception of a traveling party), was confirmed during my inquiries in Ta'u in 1967. M. Mead, Letters from the Field, 1925-1975 (New York, 1977), 51; idem, „The Role of the Individual in Samoan Culture,“ Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 58 (1928): 492. In her chapter on the Samoans in Cooperation and Competition among Primitive Peoples (New York, 1937), 305, Mead went even further, asserting that if a high-ranking chief were to make his own speeches in the fono he would be committing „the great Samoan sin“ of tautalaitiiti, by talking above his rank.

2. J. Williams, „Narrative of a Voyage Performed in the Missionary Schooner 'Olive Branch,' 1832,“ L.M.S. Archives. In some polities, such as Salai'ilua in Savai'i, there is, in Shore's words, an „inversion in ali'i and tulafale relations“ with the talking chiefs having the main voice in juridicial fono; B. Shore, „A Samoan Theory of Action: Social Control and Social Order in a Polynesian Paradox“ (Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 1977), 180.

3. R. L. Stevenson, A Footnote to History (Leipzig, 1892), 130.

4. Mead, Cooperation and Competition, 304; T. Powell, „A Samoan Tradition of the Creation and the Deluge,“ Journal of the Transactions of the Victoria Institute or Philosophical Society of Great Britain 20 (1887): 147; J. Fraser, „Some Folk-Songs and Myths from Samoa,“ Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 24 (1890): 196.

5. Fraser, „Some Folk-Songs and Myths,“ 213; Powell, „A Samoan Tradition of the Creation and the Deluge,“ 157; cf. T. Powell, Report dated Ta'u, Manu'a, 24 July 1871, L.M.S. Archives: „Tui Manu'a is the acknowledged source of all the surrounding Tui.“

6. M. Mead, Social Organization of Manu'a (Honolulu, 1930), 180; T. Nightingale, Oceanic Sketches (London, 1835), 86; Т. H. Hood, Notes of a Cruise in HM.S. 'Faum' in the Western Pacific in the Year 1862 (Edinburgh, 1863), 107.

7. M. Mead, „Jealousy: Primitive and Civilized,“ in S. D. Schmalhausen and V. F. Calverton, eds., Woman's Coming of Age: A Symposium (London, 1931), 43; J. Fraser, „The History of Taga-loa-a-Ui, Ali'a-Matua and Ali'a-Tama, Kings of Manu'a,“ Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 26 (1892): 299.

8. W. T. Pritchard, Polynesian Reminiscences (London, 1866), 55; J. A. C. Gray, Amerika Samoa: A History of American Samoa and Its United States Naval Administration (Annapolis, 1960), 71.

9. A. Kramer, Die Samoa-Inseln (Stuttgart, 1902), 1,15; S. Ella, “ '0 le Tala ia Taema ma Nafanua,“ Journal of the Polynesian Society 6 (1897): 154; T. Heath, „The War in A'ana—a Samoan Tale“ (1838), L.M.S. Archives; J. Williams, A Narrative of Missionary Enterprises in the South Sea Islands (London, 1837), 533.

10. M. Mead, „The Role of the Individual in Samoan Culture,“ Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 58 (1928): 493; Pritchard, Polynesian Reminiscences, 126; W. B. Churchward, My Consulate in Samoa (London, 1887), 55.

11. Gray, Amerika Samoa, 140 ff.

12. Ibid., 147.

13. Ibid., 146.

14. Mead, „The Role of the Individual,“ 495; Kramer Di* Samoa-Inseln, I, 1 ff.

10. Cooperation and Competition

1. M. Mead, ed., Cooperation and Competition among Primitive Peoples (New York, 1937).

2. M. Mead, Coming of Age in Samoa (New York, 1973), 35; idem, Cooperation and Competition, 8, 301 ff. For a discussion of sexual jealousy see Chapter 16.

3. J. Williams, „Narrative of a Voyage in the Missionary Schooner 'Olive Branch,' 1832,“ L.M.S. Archives.

4. T. Nightingale, Oceanic Sketches (London, 1835), 75. For other accounts of club fighting see C. Wilkes, Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition during the Years 1838-1842 (London, 1845), II, 137; A. Kramer, Die Samoa-Inseln (Stuttgart, 1903), II, 335; G. Brown, Melanesians and Polynesians (London, 1910), 340.

5. C. Hardie, letter dated Manono, 1 December 1837, L.M.S. Archives.

6. J. B. Stair, „Jottings on the Mythology and Spirit-Lore of Old Samoa,“ Journal of the Polynesian Society 5 (1896): 55.

7. W. T. Pritchard, Polynesian Reminiscences (London, 1866), 162; Krämer, Die Samoa-Inseln, Q, 334; E. Schultz, Proverbial Expressions of the Samoans (Wellington, 1965), 139.

8. G. Turner, Nineteen Years in Polynesia (London, 1861), 210 ff.; J. B. Stair, Old Samoa (London, 1897), 132 ff.

9. L. B. Wright and M. I. Fry, Puritans in the South Seas (New York, 1936), 227; W. B. Churchward, My Consulate in Samoa (London, 1887), 142. Aletta Lewis, who was in American Samoa in 1929, reports a „passionate craze for playing cricket on village malaes“; A. Lewis, They Call Them Savages (London, 1938), 106. Rugby arouses passionate competitiveness; for example, in April 1967 in Apia, the players and supporters of a defeated team „viciously assaulted“ the referee with rocks, sticks, and fists injuring him extensively about the face and head, according to the Samoa Bulletin of 26 April 1967.

10. Police Records, Western Samoa, P.C. 66/2095,1966.

11. Brother Herman, Tales of Ancient Samoa (Apia, 1966), 85; P. H. Buck, Field Notebook III, p. 53,11 October 1927, Bernice P.

Bishop Museum Library, Honolulu; J. D. Freeman, „The Tradition of Sanalala,“ Journal of the Polynesian Society 56 (1947): 297-Kramer, Die Samoa-InseIn 1,153; S. Osborn, Samoanische Zeitung, Apia, 28 September 1901; B. Shore, „A Samoan Theory of Action: Social Control and Social Order in a Polynesian Paradox“ (Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 1977), 144.

12. L. D. Holmes, „A Restudy of Manu'an Culture,“ (Ph.D. diss., Northwestern University, 1957), 226; G. B. Milner, Samoan Dictionary (London, 1966), 247; Brother Herman, trans., Institutions and Customs of the Samoans (Tutuila, 1954), 4; Stair, Old Samoa, 85.

13. G. Piatt, Journal, 1835, L.M.S. Archives; R. L. Stevenson, A Footnote to History (Leipzig, 1892), 16; T. H. Hood, Notes on a Cruise of the H. M. S. 'Fawn' in the Western Pacific in the Year 1862 (Edinburgh, 1863), 77; F. A. Young, „Stability and Change in Samoa,“ (Ph.D. diss., University of Oregon, 1976), 10; M. MacKen-zie. „More North American than the North Americans: Medical Consequences of Migrant Enthusiasm, Willing and Unwilled“ (Department of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, n.d.), 4.

14. Police Records, Western Samoa, P.C. 2811,1961.

15. American Samoa: Hearings before the Commission Appointed by the President of the United States (Washington, D.C., 1931), 24; Mead, Cooperation and Competition, 299; F. H. Flaherty, „Behind the Scenes with Our Samoan Stars,“ Asia 25 (1925): 747 (the Flahertys' film, Moana, opened in New York on 7 February 1926, when Mead was in Manu'a); M. Mead, letter dated Ta'u, 16 January 1926, in Letters from the Field, 1925-1975 (New York, 1977), 47; G. Drummond, letter dated Falealupo, Savai'i, 26 October 1842, L.M.S. Archives.

16. A. Murray, letter dated Tutuila, 10 June 1839, L.M.S. Archives; Churchward, My Consulate in Samoa, 348; Osborn, Samoanische Zeitung 9.

17. Western Samoa {Report of the Royal Commission Concerning the Administration of) (Wellington, 1927), 267; O le Savali, 1 September 1916, Apia, Western Samoa.

18. Williams, „Narrative of a Voyage“; A. Macdonald, letter dated Palauli, Savai'i, 13 September 1843, L.M.S. Archives.

19. G. Pratt, letter dated Matautu, Savai'i, 19 September 1868, L.M.S. Archives.

20. A. Lewis, They Call Them Savages (London, 1938), 48.

21. M. Mead, 'Two South Seas Educational Experiments and Their American Implications,„ University of Pennsylvania School

0f Education Bulletin 31 (1931): 494; idem, Cooperation and Cm-petition, 308.

22. F. M. Keesing, Modern Samoa (London, 1934), 414 ff.; joiner, Samoan Dictionary, 112.

23. J. Williams, A Narrative of Missionary Enterprises in the South Sea Islands (London, 1837), 355; Minutes of meeting held at Saliemoa, western Samoa on 17 May 1842; L.M.S. Archives; C. Pickering, The Races of Mem (London, 1849), 76.

24. Holmes, „A Restudy of Samoan Culture,“ 225; cf. L D. Holmes, Ta'u (Wellington, 1958), 35: „Great pride is taken by parents in the achievements of the children in church school, and special awards are given to outstanding students from time to time.“

25. D. Pitt and C. Macpherson, Emerging Pluralism: The Samoan Community in New Zealand (Auckland, 1974), 91.

11. Aggressive Behavior and Warfare

1. M. Mead, Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies, in From the South Seas (New York, 1939), 285; idem, review of Samoa under the Sailing Gods by N. A. Rowe, The Nation 133 (1931): 138; idem, Male and Female (Harmondsworth, 1962, orig. 1950), 220, 360.

2. J. F. G. de La Perouse, A Voyage Round the World in the Years 1785,1786,1787 and 1788 (London, 1798), III, 100,103,407, 0. Von Kotzebue, A New Voyage Round the World in the Years 1823, 1824,1825, and 1826 (London, 1830), 258.

3. J. Williams, A Narrative of Missionary Enterprises in the South Sea Islands (London, 1837), 333,533; C. Barff, Journal, 1830, Mitchell Library, Sydney; J. Williams, „Narrative of a Voyage in the Missionary Schooner 'Olive Branch,' 1832,“ L.M.S. Archives; T. Heath, „The War in A'ana: A Samoan Tale,“ 1838, L.M.S. Archives.

4. Williams, Narrative of Missionary Enterprises, 533; idem, „Narrative of a Voyage'*; J. B. Stair, Old Samoa (London, 1897), 243.

5. Williams, „Narrative of a Voyage“; idem, letter to Rev. W. Ellis dated Rarotonga, 6 January 1833. In 1846 the total population of the polity of Ta'u (including Faieasao), was 595 (M. Hunlrin, letter dated Manu'a, 9 October 1846). If one assumes a population in 1832 of say 700, this would mean (about 40 percent of the male population being boys) a total of some 210 adult males. The death of 35 of this number represents a loss of approximately 16 percent of the adult male population.

6. L. D. Holmes, „A Restudy of Manu'an Culture“ (Ph.D. diss. Northwestern University, 1957); 225; Annual Report, 1965, Police and Prisons Department, Government of Western Samoa.

7. G. Piatt, Journal, 1836, L.M.S. Archives.

8. Police Records, Western Samoa, P.O. 493, 1961.

9. Police Records, Western Samoa, P.C. 203-204, 1963.

10. Police Records, Western Samoa, P.C. 3322-3331, 1962.

11. Samoa Times, 3 November 1967.

12. Mead, Male and Female, 361; idem, „Life as a Samoan Girl,“ in All True! The Record of Actual Adventures that Have Happened to Ten Women of Today (New York, 1931), 99.

13. Police Records, Western Samoa, P.C. 3402,1963.

14. Police Records, Western Samoa, P.C. 5092,1964.

15. One measure of the contentiousness of Samoans is the fact that (according to the Registrar of the Land and Titles Court Mu-linu'u, Western Samoa) during the period 1966-1967, when the population of Western Samoa was about 130,000, some 1,400 statements of intention to proceed to litigation were received each year: a rate of 1,077 such actions per 100,000 of population per annum.

16. Sir Angus Sharp, interview, New Zealand Herald, 22 July 1978; American Samoa's Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1980, 111, 129, L S. W. Duncan, in „Crime by Polynesians in Auckland“ (M.A. thesis, University of Auckland, 1970), 122 flf., showed that in 1966 Samoans were charged with more crimes of violence than other Pacific migrants. Annual Report, 1966, Police and Prisons Department, Government of Western Samoa.

17. M. E. Wolfgang, ed., Studies in Homicide (New York, 1967), 285.

18. Annual Reports, 1965 and 1966, Police and Prisons Department, Government of Western Samoa; Crime in New Zealand (Wellington, 1968), 211; D. Biles, ed., Crime and Justice in Australia (Melbourne, 1977), 18; Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S. Department of Justice, Uniform Crime Reports for the United States (Washington, D.C., 1965), 108.

19. M. Mead, Social Organization of Manu'a (Honolulu, 1930), 157, 168; idem, „The Role of the Individual in Samoan Culture,“ Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 58 (1928): 484; idem, „The Samoans,“ in M. Mead, ed., Cooperation and Competition among Primitive Peoples (New York, 1937), 481 flf.

20. American Samoa. Hearings Before the Commission Appointed by the President of the United States (Washington, D.C., 1931), 98, 307; Western Samoa (Report of the Royal Commission Concerning the Administration of), (Wellington, 1927), 361.

21. A. W. Murray, Forty Years' Mission Work in Polynesia and New Guinea from 1836 to 1875 (London, 1876), 40; J. B. Stair, Old Samoa (London, 1897), 242; C. Wilkes, Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition during the Years 1838-1842 (London, 1846), II, 65,150; J. King, letter dated Falealupo, Savai'i, 30 September 1864, L.M.S. Archives; S. J. Whitmee, „Mr. Wallace on the Ethnology of Polynesia,“ Contemporary Review 21 (1873): 397; A. Krämer, Die Samoa-Inseln (Stuttgart, 1903), n, 341.

22. Krämer, Die Samoa-Inseln, II, 340; T. Powell, letter dated Pago Pago, Tutuila, 1 July 1859, L.M.S. Archives; C. Hardie, letter dated Sapapali'i, Savai'i, 11 March 1844, L.M.S. Archives.

23. J. Frazer, The Belief in Immortality (London, 1922), H, 162; W. T. Pritchard, Polynesian Reminiscences (London, 1866), 57; R. L. Stevenson, in his letter to the editor of the Pall Mall Gazette of 4 September 1893 (Collected Works, XVII, 385), gives an account of fifteen heads being paraded before Malietoa at Muhnu'u, where the „king“ received them and complimented each successful warrior.

24. Josia, „The Autobiography of Josia: A Samoan Native Pastor,“ translated from the Samoan, LM.S. Chronicle, May 1866, p. 200; J. Williams, „Narrative of a Voyage“; M. Hunkin, report dated Manu'a, February 1845, L.M.S. Archives; Heath, „The War in A'ana.“

25. Heath, „The War in A'ana“; C. Hardie, letter dated Malua, Upolu, 5 August 1848, L.M.S. Archives.

26. A. Murray, letter dated Pago Pago, Tutuila, 2 November 1842, L.M.S. Archives; F. A. Young, „Stability and Change in Samoa“ (Ph.D. diss., University of Oregon, 1972), 14; T. Powell, report dated Ta'ü, 24 July 1871, L.M.S. Archives.

27. Dr. Peter Buck, during his visit to Manu'a in October 1927, was told of the heavy defeat that Ta'ü inflicted on Olosega in 1867 and was taken to the site of the main battle; Field Notebook IV, p. 20, 24 October 1927, Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu; cf. Powell, report dated Ta'û, 24 July 1871. In 1871 boys made up 43.5 percent of the male population of Manu'a.

28. S. Ella, “ 'O le Tala ia Taema ma Nafanua,“ Journal of the Polynesian Society 6 (1897): 154; J. E. Erskine, Journal of a Cruise among the Islands of the Western Pacific (London, 1853), 63; G. Turner, letter dated Malua, Upolu, 30 September 1853, LM.S. Archives; Williams, „Narrative of a Voyage.“

29. A. Wendt, Pouliuli (Auckland, 1977), 80; Krämer, Die Samoa-Inseln, II, 342.

30. Williams, „Narrative of a Voyage“; Krämer, Die Samoa-Inseln, 1,259.

31. R. S. Moore and J. R. Farrington, The American Samoan Commission's Visit to Samoa, September-October, 1930 (Washington, D.C., 1931), 58; Stair, Old Samoa, 21; J. Fräser, „Some Folk-Songs and Myths from Samoa,“ Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 25 (1891): 141; Pritchard, Poly-nesian Reminiscences, 151; G. Turner, Samoa a Hundred Years Ago and Long Before (London, 1884), 190.

32. Turner, Samoa a Hundred Years Ago, ch. 4.

33. Mead, Social Organization ofManu'a, 167,168,177, 208. In „Le 'Ava: A Solo,“ a text collected by Thomas Powell from Taua-nu'u, „the legend keeper of Manu'a,“ around 1870, Le Fanoga is specifically mentioned as a war god. Although Mead listed this source, which is contained in Fraser, „Folk-Songs and Myths from Samoa,“ Journal of the Polynesian Society 6 (1897): 119, in the bibliography of Social Organization ofManu'a, she does not seem to have taken cognizance of its contents.

34. C. Hardie, diary, Mitchell Library, Sydney.

35. Williams, „Narrative of a Voyage“; Williams also lists Foilagi and Toatoa as being war gods of Manu'a. Neither is mentioned by Mead.

12. Religion: Pagan and Christian

1. M. Mead, An Inquiry into the Question of Cultural Stability in Polynesia (New York, 1928); idem, „The Role of the Individual in Samoan Culture,“ Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 53 (1928): 491,494; idem, „The Samoans,“ in M. Mead, ed., Cooperation and Competition among Primitive Peoples (New York, 1937), 304; idem, „A Lapse of Animism among a Primitive People,“ Psyche 9 (1928): 77; idem, Social Organization ofManu'a (Honolulu, 1930), 84,86.

2. R Firth, The Work of the Gods in Tikopia (London, 1940), 2 vols.; idem, Rank and Religion in Tikopia (London, 1970), 313.

3. i. Williams, „Narrative of a Voyage in the Missionary Schooner 'Olive Branch,' 1832,“ LM.S. Archives; idem, A Narrative of Missionary Enterprises in the South Sea Islands (London, 1837), 540; A. Buzacott, journal, 1836, L.M.S. Archives.

4. H. Hale, Notes, Mitchell Library, Sydney, G. Turner, „Fifty-five Years Mission Work in Samoa“ (1891), L.M.S. Archives; idem, Sarnoa a Hundred Years Ago and Long Before (London, 1884), 23-77, 156; W. T. Pritchard, Polynesian Reminiscences (London, 1866), 108, 122. The individual gods of ali'i were particularly associated with sacred stones, that of the paramount chief of Sa'anapu being a stone (which I was shown in 1942) shaped like the shell of a turtle and situated in a fresh-water spring named Tui A tua. Some of the more important gods and spirits of pagan times were also well remembered in Sa'anapu in the early 1940s. Thus in 1942 I had pointed out to me several times a moving light in the bay beyond Lotofagâ in Safata which was said to be Putepute, an ancestral ghost of the 'Âiga Satunumafono, one of the major families of western Samoa.

5. Williams, „Narrative of a Voyage“; for an account of spirit possession, see J. D. Freeman, „The Joe Gimlet or Siovffi Cult: An Episode in the Religious History of Early Samoa,“ in J. D. Freeman and W. R. Geddes, eds., Anthropology in the South Seas (New Plymouth, New Zealand, 1959), 191; cf. Firth's account, in The Work of the Gods, II, 224, of the possession of a Tikopian man: „His trembling became more violent, and his locked hands rattled on the coconut matting. Suddenly he emitted a shriek, then with head swinging rapidly from side to side he began to speak in loud, metallic, curiously prolonged tones. This was regarded by the natives as the voice of the deity.“

6. G. Brown, Melanesians and Polynesians (London, 1910), 224. A spirit medium was also called a va'a atua, or vessel of the gods, and, in Manu'a, a va'a Tagaloa, or vessel of Tagaloa; cf. Mead, Social Organization of Manu'a, 160.

7. J. B. Stair, „Jottings on the Mythology and Spirit-Lore of Old Samoa,“ Journal of the Polynesian Society 5 (1896): 42; Pritchard, Polynesian Reminiscences, 110.

8. T. Powell, „Some Folk-Songs and Myths from Samoa,“ Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 25 (1891): 133; Williams, „Narrative of a Voyage.“

9. S. Ella, „Samoa, &c.,“ Report, Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science 4 (1892): 638; Brown, Melanesians and Polynesians, 228; S. Ella, „The Ancient Samoan Government,“ Re-Port of the Sixth Meeting of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science 6 (1895): 602.

10. Mead, „A Lapse of Animism,“ 77.

11. G. Pratt, Grammar and Dictionary of the Samoan Language, 4th ed. (Malua, 1911), 203; idem, „Some Folk-Songs and Myths from Samoa,“ 146; Turner, Samoa a Hundred Years Ago, 204 ff.

12. Firth, Rank and Religion, 313. The linguistic relationship between Samoa and Tikopia is close, and Firth, in his History and Traditions of Tikopia (Wellington, 1961), 166, has suggested that „an early settlement from Samoa could have provided many of the basic components of Tikopia society, into which the contibutions of various immigrant elements were continually built, and which in time constituted an individual social entity.“ Mead, Social Organization of Manu'a, 157. Mead's study of the history of pagan Samoa was perfunctory. In Manu'a in 1926 she told A. F. Judd, in answer to his specific questioning, that she could find no trace of an early religion except „belief in devils“ (Expanded notes, ethnology, etc., American Samoa, February 15-April 2,1926, Islands of Tutuila, Ofu and Ta'u, Bemice P. Bishop Museum Library, p. 77). Williams' Narrative of Missionary Enterprises in the South Sea Islands (1837), a crucially important source on pagan Samoa, is not listed in the bibliography of Mead's Social Organization of Manu'a, and at no stage in her anthropological career did she consult the information available in the archives of the London Missionary Society, which is indispensable to any scholarly study of early Samoa.

13. Williams, „Narrative of a Voyage“; idem, Narrative of Missionary Enterprises, 546; idem, letter dated „On board the Missionary Ship 'Camden,' in sight of Rotuma,“ 12 November 1839, L.M.S. Archives; T. Powell, in his „A Samoan Tradition of the Creation and the Deluge,“ Journal of the Transactions of the Victoria Institute, or Philosophical Society of Great Britain 20 (1887): 148, gives as the meaning of the word Tagaloa „the Unrestrained or Illimitable,“ from toga, unrestrained by tabu, and loa, continuously.

14. Powell, „A Samoan Tradition of the Creation and the Deluge,“ 148,155; Fraser, „Some Folk-Songs and Myths from Samoa,“ 102; J. Dowson, A Classical Dictionary of Hindu Mythology and Religion, Geography, History and Literature, 7th ed. (London, 1950), 56; J. Fraser, „The Samoan Story of Creation,“ Journal of the Polynesian Society 1 (1892): 164.

15. Fraser, „The Samoan Story of Creation“; idem, „Folk-Songs and Myths from Samoa,“ Journal of the Polynesian Society 6 (1897): 67; idem, „Some Folk-Songs and Myths from Samoa,“ 96, 138.

16. Fraser, „Some Folk-Songs and Myths from Samoa,“ 102; idem, „Folk-Songs and Myths from Samoa,“ 67; Powell, „A Samoan Tradition of the Creation and the Deluge,“ 152.

17. Turner, Samoa a Hundred Years Ago, 53; Fraser, „Folk-gongs and Myths from Samoa,“ 31.

18. Fraser, „Folk-Songs and Myths from Samoa,“ 34,27; Turner, Samoa a Hundred Years Ago, 43; Fraser, „Some Folk-Songs and Myths from Samoa,“ 74, 99, 116; 0. Stuebel, Selections from Samoan Texts, trans. Brother Herman (Tutuila, n.d.), 5; E. Schultz, proverbial Expressions of the Samoans (Wellington, 1965), 100.

19. Williams, „Narrative of a Voyage“; T. Heath, letter dated Apia, 30 March 1840, L.M.S. Archives; M. Hunkin, letter dated Manu'a, 9 October 1846, L.M.S. Archives; C. Wilkes, Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition during the Yean 1838-1842 (London, 1845), II, 75, 79.

20. L. D. Holmes, Ta'u (Wellington, 1958), 32; H. F. Bryan, American Samoa: A General Report by the Governor (Washington, D.C., 1927), 6; A. F. Judd, Expanded notes, ethnology, etc., p. 95; B. Cartwright, Field Notebook I, p. 37,11 September 1927, Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu; P.H. Buck, „Samoan Education,“ The Friend 151 (1932): 404; American Samoa: Hearings before the Commission Appointed by the President of the United States (Washington, D.C., 1931), 286. Tufele Iosefa's statement also holds for the Samoans of the western islands. In 1954 at the constitutional convention of Western Samoa it was averred that above all Samoans are God-fearing, and when Western Samoa was established as an independent state, it was with arms bearing the words „Samoa is Founded on God“; cf. the statement of a citizen of Western Samoa reported by M. Shadbolt in „Western Samoa,“ National Geographic Magazine 122 (1962): 576: „To understand Samoa, you must understand our passion for religion.“

21. M. Mead, Male and Female (Harmondsworth, 1962, orig. 1950), 100, 125; idem, Coming of Age in Samoa (New York, 1973), 161; idem, „Americanization in Samoa,“ American Mercury 16 (1929): 269; idem, „Stevenson's Samoa Today,“ The World Today 58 (1931): 349. Mead's failure to comprehend the significance of the Christian religion in the lives of twentieth-century Samoans is also revealed in her remark to Aletta Lewis in October 1928: „They are Christians, but they've been Christian so long they've almost gotten over it“; A. Lewis, They Call Them Savages (London, 1938), 21.

22. Mead, Coming of Age, 165, 285.

23. A Few Lessons in English and Tahitian (Tahiti: Mission Press, 1832); J. Fraser, „Some Folk-Songs and Myths from Samoa,“ Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 25 (1891): 102; '0 le Fesili (Samoa, 1842), 6.

24. G. Turner, Nineteen Years in Polynesia (London, 1861), 293; '0 Pese ma Vi'iga i le Atua (Malua, n.d.), 5.

25. Mead, Coming of Age, 126, 193, 277.

26. G. Pratt, Grammar and Dictionary of the Samoan Language, 4th ed. (Malua, 1911), 22; 'O le Fesili, 6; 'O Pese ma Vi'iga i le Atua, 94.

27. 'O Pese ma Vi'iga i le Atua, 119; 'O le Tusi Paia (London, 1938), 1029.

28. J. Ablen, in „Samoan Family and Community in Crisis: The All Hallows Fire,“ Program Information Series 3 (1972): 33, notes that the All Hallows fire in San Francisco of 1946, in which seventeen Samoans were killed and forty-two seriously burned, was said by some Samoan informants to be God's punishment for people's sins.

29. M. Mead, „Social Change and Cultural Surrogates,“ in C. Kluckhohn and H. A. Murray, eds, Personality in Nature, Society and Culture (New York, 1950), 515; D. Freeman, „A Happening Frightening to both Ghosts and Men: A Case Study from Western Samoa,“ in N. Gunson, ed., The Changing Pacific (Melbourne, 1978), 163-173; Brown, Melanesicuis and Polynesians, 230.

30. Brown, Melanesiens and Polynesians, 382.

13. Punishment

1. M. Mead, Social Organization ofManu'a (Honolulu, 1930), 70,82; idem, „The Role of the Individual in Samoan Culture,“ Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 58 (1928): 494; J. Fraser, „Some Folk-Songs and Myths from Samoa,“ Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 25 (1891): 74.

2. Western Samoan Mail, 3 May 1941.

3. Ibid.; A. Krämer, Die Samoa-Inseln (Stuttgart, 1902), 1,200; 0. Stuebel, Selections from Samoan Texts, trans. Brother Herman (Tutuila, n.d.), 50.

4. Western Samoan Mail, 3 May 1941.

5. G. Turner, Nineteen Years in Polynesia (London, 1861), 286; G. Brown, Melanesiens and Polynesians (London, 1910), 289; Mead, Social Organization ofManu'a, 43; F. H. Flaherty, „Fa'aSa-m0a,“ Asia 25 (1925): 1,090; Canberra Times, 14 January 1981. As grown notes, the punishment of saisai, as well as the form of the jfoga (see Chapter 12), indicates that cannibalism was once customary in Samoa, and this accounts for the terrible disgrace associated frith saisai as a form of punishment.

6. Report of the Commission to Inquire into and Report upon the Organization of District and Village Government in Western Samoa (Wellington, 1950), 33; Brother Herman, trans., Institutions and Customs of the Samoans (Tutuila, 1954, orig. 1944), 3; R G. Crocombe and M. Crocombe, The Works of Ta'unga (Canberra, 1968), 129.

7. J. B. Stair, Old Samoa (London, 1897), 91. For an account of a juridical fono see D. Freeman, „A Happening Frightening to Both Ghosts and Men: A Case Study from Western Samoa,“ in N. Gun-son, ed., The Changing Pacific (Melbourne, 1978), 163-173; Western Samoa (.Report of Royal Commission Concerning the Administration of) (Wellington, 1927), 269. Shore reports banishment and a fine of fifteen large sows being imposed on a talking chief in Sala'ilua in the early 1970s, though this banishment order, as sometimes happens, was later rescinded and the fine reduced to five pigs; B. Shore, „A Samoan Theory of Action: Social Control and Social Order in a Polynesian Paradox“ (Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 1977), 144.

8. Kramer, Die Samoa-Inseln, II, 101,384; C. Wilkes, Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition during the Yean 1838-1842 (London, 1845), n, 150; Stair, Old Samoa, 95; Turner, Nineteen Years in Polynesia, 286; Brown, Melanesians and Polynesians, 291; Institutions and Customs of the Samoans, 4.

9. Turner, Nineteen Years in Polynesia, 285; Brown, Melanesians and Polynesians, 289.

10. J. B. Stair, „Jottings on the Mythology and the Spirit-Lore of Old Samoa,“ Journal of the Polynesian Society 5 (1896): 38; R. S. Moore and J. R. Farrington, The American Samoan Commission's Visit to Samoa: September-October, 1930 (Washington, D.C., 1931), 30.

14. Childrearing

1. M. Mead, Male and Female (Harmondsworth, 1962), 201; idem, „South Sea Hints on Bringing Up Children,“ Parents' Magazine 4 (1929): 22, 50; idem, „Back of Adolescence Lies Early Childhood,“ Childhood Education 18 (1941): 58; idem, „Broken Homes,“

The Nation 128 (1929): 254; idem, Growing up in New Guinea, in From the South Seas (New York, 1939), 239; idem, „Parents and Children in Samoa,“ Child Study 9 (1932): 232.

2. M. Mead, Continuities in Cultural Evolution (New Haven, 1964), 9; J. B. Watson, Psychological Care of Infant and Child (London, 1928), 14,28; idem, „Should a Child Have More Than One Mother? A Psychologist's Notion of a Better Way to Grow Up,“ Liberty, 29 June 1929, p. 33.

3. K. Lorenz, „Der Kumpán in der Umwelt des Vogels,“ Journal of Ornithology 83 (1935): 137; J. P. Scott and J. L. Fuller, The Genetics and Social Behavior of the Dog (Chicago, (1965); H. F. Harlow, „The Nature of Love,“ American Psychologist 13 (1958): 673; J. Bowlby, Attachment and Loss, vol. I Attachment (London, 1969), 179, vol II, Separation, Anxiety and Anger (London, 1973); R. A. Spitz and K. M. Wolf, „The Smiling Response: a Contribution to the Ontogenesis of Social Relations,“ Genetic Psychology Monographs 34 (1946): 57. Our observation of a Samoan infant (born on 20 January 1966) showed that nonselective smiling was at its peak during his fourth month, when he would smile at complete strangers and respond with a marked smile even when approached by someone wearing a mask with a highly threatening expression. At the end of the third quarter of his first year, however, this infant did not respond when smiled at by a stranger, and when confronted by the same threatening mask would turn away in alarm to cling closely to his mother, to whom he had by then become behaviorally attached.

4. D. Freeman, „Kinship, Attachment Behavior and the Primary Bond,“ in J. Goody, ed., The Character of Kinship (Cambridge, 1973), 109 ff.

5. M. Mead, Coming of Age in Samoa (New York, 1973), 22.

6. Mead, „Broken Homes,“ 254; idem, Social Organization of Manu'a (Honolulu, 1930), 91; idem, „Samoan Children at Work and Play,“ Natural History 28 (1928): 632; idem, Coming of Age, 42; idem, „The Role of the Individual in Samoan Culture,“ Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 58 (1928): 487.

7. E. R. Gerber, „The Cultural Patterning of Emotions in Samoa“ (Ph.D. diss., University of California, San Diego, 1975), 76.

8. M. Mead, „Psychologic Weaning: Childhood and Adolescence,“ in M. Mead, Anthropology: A Human Science: Selected Papers, 1939-1960 (New York, 1964), 43; idem, „Samoan Children at Work and Play,“ 633; idem, Coming of Age, 159; idem, Male and Female, 99,124; idem, Anthropologists and What They Do, 124.

9. C. Wilkes, Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition during the Years 1838-1842 (London, 1845), II, 73; J.B. Stair, Old Samoa (London, 1897), 178; L. D. Holmes, Samoan Village (New York, 1974), 78; S. Hirsh, „The Social Organization of an Urban Village in Samoa,“ Journal of the Polynesian Society 67 (1958): 281; Mead, Social Organization of Manu'a, 226 if.; Gerber, „The Cultural Patterning of Emotions in Samoa,“ 57 ff.

10. Gerber, „The Cultural Patterning of Emotions in Samoa,“ 55; Proverbs 13: 24, 22: 6.

11. Gerber, „The Cultural Patterning of Emotions in Samoa,“ 72.

12. L. D. Holmes, Ta'u: Stability and Change in a Samoan Village (Wellington, 1958), 44.

13. Police Records, Western Samoa, P.C. 3487, 1958, and P.C. 3611,1963.

14. For a reproduction of a drawing by a 6-year-old Samoan girl, see D. Freeman, „Functional Aspects of Aggression, Fear and Attachment in Anthropological Perspective,“ in M. von Cranach et al., eds., Human Ethology: Claims and Limits of a New Discipline (Cambridge, 1979), 292.

15. Samoa Times, 29 June 1918; R. A. Goodman, „Some Aitu Beliefs of Modern Samoans,“ Journal of the Polynesian Society 80 (1971): 471.

15. Samoan Character

1. M. Mead, Growing Up in New Guinea, in M. Mead, From the South Seas (New York, 1939), 234; idem, „Jealousy: Primitive and Civilized,“ in S. D. Schmalhausen and V. F. Calverton. eds., Woman's Coming of Age: A Symposium (New York, 1931), 46; idem. Coming of Age in Samoa (New York, 1973), 199; idem, Social Organization of Manu'a (Honolulu, 1930), 84.

2. M. Mead, Male and Female (Harmondsworth, 1962), 100, idem, Social Organization of Manu'a, 43,100; idem, Coming of Age, 156 ff.

3. W. Harbutt, in a letter dated Lepa, Upolu, 28 January 1841, LM.S. Archives; G. A. Lundie, Missionary Life in Samoa (Edinburgh, 1846), 105,117; A. W. Murray, Journal, 6 June 1840, LM-S. Archives.

4. Mead, Coming of Age, 160; T. Powell, letter dated Pago Pago, 23 October 1869, L.M.S. Archives; 'O le Savali, Apia, Western Samoa, 21 March 1967.

5. G. Pratt, Grammar and Dictionary of the Samoan Language (Malua, 1911) 224, 327; J. Williams, A Narrative of Missionary Enterprises in the South Sea Islands (London, 1837), 442; G. Turner, Nineteen Years in Polynesia (London, 1861), 227; W. T. Pritchard, Polynesian Reminiscences (London, 1866), 148.

6. G. Brown, Pioneer Missionary and Explorer. An Autobiography (London, 1908), 34; Turner, Nineteen Years in Polynesia, 343; Pratt, Grammar and Dictionary, 157,188.

7. Mead, Coming of Age, 206 ff.

8. R. L. Stevenson, A Footnote to History (Leipzig, 1892), 48; A. Wendt, Pouliuli (Wellington, 1977), 116.

9. C. Wilkes, Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition during the Years 1838-1842 (London, 1845), V, 23; B. Cartwright, Field Notebook II, p. 66, Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu.

10. J. Williams, „Narrative of a Voyage Performed in the Missionary Schooner 'Olive Branch,' 1832,“ L.M.S. Archives; Pratt, Grammar and Dictionary, 229; R. L. Stevenson, Vailima Letters (London, 1912), 115; C. C. Marsack, Samoan Medley (London, 1964), 29.

11. Mead, Male and Female, 100; idem, Coming of Age, 123.

12. 0. Fenichal, The Psychoanalytic Theory of Neurosis (London, 1946), 279; M. Mackenzie, „More North American than the North Americans: Medical Consequences of Migrant Enthusiasm, Willing and Unwilled“ (Department of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, n.d.), 3; R. Rose, South Seas Magic (London, 1959), 102.

13. Turner, Nineteen Years in Polynesia, 340.

14. M. Mead, „The Role of the Individual in Samoan Culture,“ Journal of the Roycd Anthropological Institute 58 (1928): 494.

15. Of the twenty-two cases of suicide, eight were by hanging, six by shooting, four by poisoning, three by leaping from a height, and one by cutting the throat.

16. G. Pratt, Note, Papers of G. Brown, Mitchell Library, Sydney.

17. L. D. Holmes, in „The Restudy of Manu'an Culture: A Problem of Methodology“ (Ph.D. diss., Northwestern University, 1957), 222, reports a comparable case of a girl of Ta'u who, because she could not marry the man she desired, ate poisonous seaweed.

18. Information supplied by the Chief Statistician, Commonwealth Department of Health, Canberra, A.C.T.; Crime in New

Zealand (Wellington, 1968), 84 ff.; J. King, in an article in The New Pacific Magazine 6 (1981): 28, estimates the suicide rate in Western gamoa at 20 per 100,000, and that of American Samoa (since 1968) at 7.6 per 100,000 per annum. As M. B. Clinard reports in Sociology of Deviant Behavior (New York, 1974), 635, „the older a person is, in the United States and generally throughout Western European countries, the more likely he is to take his own life.“ The rates in the United States for 1970 were about three times as great for those between 45 and 54 as for those between 15 and 24. In contrast, in Samoa it is the young who tend to commit suicide: of the twenty-two cases I investigated, only one was over 45 years of age, while fifteen, or 68 percent, were in the age group 15-24, and one was a girl of 14.

19. Mead, Social Organization ofManu'a, 98,161.

20. T. K. Oesterreich, Possession, Demoniacal and Other Among Primitive Races in Antiquity, the Middle Ages and Modem Times (New York, 1966), 39; W. Sargant, The Mind Possessed (London, 1973), 12; I. P. Pavlov, Lectures on Conditional Reflexes, II: Conditioned Reflexes and Psychiatry (London, 1941); B. Shore, „A Samoan Theory of Action: Social Control and Social Order in a Polynesian Paradox“ (Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 1977), 147.

21. A Buzacott, Journal, 1836, L.M.S. Archives; L D. Holmes, Ta'u: Stability and Change in a Samoan Village (Wellington, 1958), 33; R. A. Goodman, „Some Aitu Beliefs of Modem Samoans,“ Journal of the Polynesian Society 80 (1971): 468.

22. Buzacott, Journal, 1836.

23. When I returned to Western Samoa in 19611 learned that Mu, when 27 years of age, had killed himself with a shotgun after a disagreement with his natal mother.

24. According to information provided in 1967 by the Records Section of the Apia Hospital, during the years 1955-1967 a total of sixty-three psychiatrically ill individuals were institutionalized The population of Western Samoa was 91,833in 1956 and 131,552 in 1966.

16. Sexual Mores and Behavior

L M. Mead, Blackberry Winter (New York, 1972), 167; American Mercury 15 (1928): xxii; F. O'Brien, cited on the back cover of the Mentor edition of Coming of Age in Samoa (New York, 1962); M. Mead, „The Samoans,“ in M. Mead, ed., Cooperation and Competition among Primitive Peoples (New York, 1937), 123,310; idem, Americanization in Samoa,„ American Mercury 16 (1929): 269; idem, Coming of Age in Samoa (New York, 1973), 196; J. J. Honigmann, Understanding Culture (New York, 1963), 273; R. H. Lowie, review of Coming of Age in Samoa, American Anthropologist 31 (1929): 532.

2. R H. Lowie, Robert H. Lowie, Ethnologist: A Personal Record (Berkeley, 1959), 110; E. G. Burrows, „Western Polynesia, A Study in Cultural Differentiation,“ Etnologiska Studier 7 (1938): 5; C. Wilkes, Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition during the Years 1838-1842 (London, 1845), II, 73; R. G. Crocombe and M. Crocombe, The Works of Ta'unga: Records of a Polynesian Traveller in the South Seas 1833-1896 (Canberra, 1968), 132; W. T. Pritchard, Polynesian Reminiscences (London, 1866), 138; A. Kramer, Die Samoa-Inseln (Stuttgart, 1902), I, 39; Constitutional Convention of Western Samoa (1954), Papers and Proceedings (Nelson Memorial Library, Apia, Western Samoa).

3. Mead, Coming of Age, 98; idem, „The Sex Life of the Unmarried Adult in Primitive Society,“ in I. S. Wile, ed., The Sex Life of the Unmarried Adult (London, 1953), 61; idem, Male and Female (Harmondsworth, 1962), 119. In all of the editions of Coming of Age in Samoa that I have inspected, Mead spells the Samoan term for a ceremonial virgin incorrectly as taupo, instead of tdupou (as in the dictionaries of Pratt and Milner). This is a major solecism, for, as Kramer notes in Die Samoa-Inseln, I, 32, taupo literally means „to indulge in love affairs at night,“ a connotation totally alien to the culturally defined role of a ceremonial virgin.

4. 'Aiono Ma'ia'i, Tama Samoa Ala Mai (Apia, 1964), 10; R. L. Stevenson, Vailima Papers (London, 1924), 278. S. Ella, „Samoa, etc.,“ Report, Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science 4 (1892): 623; J. Lefarge, Reminiscences of the South Seas (London, 1914), 120.

5. J. Bugge, Virginitas: An Essay in the History of a Medieval Ideal (The Hague, 1975), 17.

6. G. Brown, Melanesians and Polynesians (London, 1910), 56; for a photograph of virgin locks of the kind once affected by virgins in Samoa, see Laura Thompson's photograph, taken in the 1930s, of a girl of the Lau Islands (to the west of Samoa), in her Fijian Frontier (New York, 1940), 58; J. Williams, „Narrative of a Voyage Performed in the Missionary Schooner 'Olive Branch,' 1832,“ L.M.S. Archives.

7. G. Turner, Nineteen Years in Polynesia (London, 1861), 321; 'Aiono Ma'ia'i, Tama Samoa Ala Mai, 11.

8. G. Turner, Samoa a Hundred Years Ago and Long Before (London, 1884), 94; Williams, „Narrative of a Voyage“; R W. Williamson, Essays in Polynesian Ethnology (Cambridge, 1939), 321.

9. Williams, „Narrative of a Voyage“; both Turner, Samoa a Hundred Years Ago, 94 and Pritchard, Polynesian Reminiscence», 138, also report wild enthusiasm on the part of the immediate relations of a taupou, when at her ceremonial defloration she proved to be a virgin, with the cutting of heads with stones until the blood flowed freely-

10. Williams, „Narrative of a Voyage“; Pritchard, Polynesian Reminiscences, 139.

11. J. E. Erskine, Journal of a Cruise among the Islands of the Western Pacific (London, 1853), 411.

12. Ibid., 414.

13. A. Krämer, Salamasina, trans. Brother Herman (Pago Pago, 1958; orig, 1923), 24; W. Harbutt, letter dated Upolu, 21 April 1866, L.M.S. Archives; Pritchard, Polynesian Reminiscences, 53.

14. R. M. Moyle, „Sexuality in Samoan Art Forms,“ Archives of Sexual Behavior 3 (1975): 231; the translation is my own.

15. E. Tregear, The Maori-Polynesian Comparative Dictionary (Wellington, 1891), 113; G. B. Milner, Samoan Dictionary (London, 1966), 6.

16. Police Records, Western Samoa, P.C. 208,1963; P. H. Buck, Field Notebook V, p. 54,17 December 1927, Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu.

17. E. W. Gifford, Tongan Society (Honolulu, 1929), 186; L Thompson, Fijian Frontier (New York, 1940), 48; R. Firth, We, the Tikopia (London, 1936), 514 and 559.

18. Turner, Nineteen Years in Polynesia, 188; 0. Stuebel, Selections from Samoan Texts, trans. Brother Herman (Pago Pago, n.d.), 40 ff.; B. Shore, „A Samoan Theory of Action: Social Control and Social Order in a Polynesian Paradox“ (Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 1977), 422.

19. E. R. Gerber, „The Cultural Patterning of Emotions in Samoa“ (Ph.D. diss., University of California, San Diego, 1975), 97; P. A. Young, „Stability and Change in Samoa“ (PhD. diss., University of Oregon, 1976), 39; Police Records, Western Samoa, P.C. 1804, 1959; P.C. 694, 1964.

20. L D. Holmes, Ta'ü: Stability and Change in a Samoan Vil-% (Wellington, 1958), 47, records that „when Mead resided in Ta'ü village there was a pastor's boarding school for girls aged twelve to eighteen“; cf. F. G. Calkins, My Samoan Chief (Honolulu, 1975), 18, who records the statement of her Samoan husband, Vaiao J. Ala'ilima, that „respectable young Samoan ladies at a critical age usually lived with the village pastor for safekeeping.“ Under Samoan custom a girl was required to be a virgin to qualify for residence in a pastor's household. It is unlikely, therefore, that as claimed in table 1 in Coming of Age in Samoa, two girls were still resident in the pastor's household after having had heterosexual experience. If the two girls had, in fact, not had heterosexual experience, the proportion of virgins in Mead's sample is then 60 percent; Mead, Coming of Age, 168, 282, 286.

21. Shore, „A Samoan Theory of Action,“ 422; Mead, Coming of Age, 98; Archives, High Court of American Samoa, Fagatogo, Tu-tuila, American Samoa.

22. Of the twenty-two girls in the age-group 16-18 in Sa'anapu in August 1967, eighteen, or 82 percent, were members of the Ekalesia. Membership in the Ekalesia by an unmarried adolescent girl is based on acceptance by other members, who exercise a very strict surveillance in this matter, that she is a virgin. The classing of a girl as a virgin is based on this and all other available relevant evidence. In contrast, only one of the twenty-five adolescent males in the age-group 16-18 was a communicant member of the Ekalesia.

23. Shore, „A Samoan Theory of Action,“ 422. Although the ideal of chastity for women before marriage is still of great importance in Samoa, changes in sexual mores have occurred and are still occurring following the large-scale migration, from the 1950s onward, of American Samoans to the United States and of Western Samoans to New Zealand, which has led to acquaintance with the sexual permissiveness of Western societies. Some of these migrants have returned to Samoa, and in consequence sexual behavior has, since the 1960s, begun to depart from the traditional system

24. M. Mead, „Cultural Contexts of Puberty and Adolescence,“ Bulletin of the Philadelphia Association for Psychoanalysis 9 (1959): 62; J. J. Honigmann, Understanding Culture (New York, 1963), 273.

25. Pritehard, Polynesian Reminiscences, 134. Mead is in error in claiming, in Coming of Age in Samoa, 152, that in Samoa illegitimate children are „enthusiastically welcomed“; cf. L. D. Holmes's statement, in Samoan Village (New York, 1974), 82, that the village council of Fitiuta, Manu'a „imposes heavy fines on any family wherein a member gives birth to a child out of wedlock.“

26. N. A. Howe, Samoa under the Sailing Gods (New York and London, 1930), 271; in a footnote to his description of „a Samoan gjjl's moral code,“ Howe adds the comment, „they are singularly chaste compared to most Polynesians.“

27. A. Wendt, Pouliuli (Auckland, 1977), 121.

28. Mead, „The Sex Life of the Unmarried Adult in Primitive Society,“ 62; idem, Coming of Age, 90; idem, Social Organization of yianu'a (Honolulu, 1930), 84; idem, „Jealousy: Primitive and Civilized,“ in S. D. Schmalhausen and V. F. Calverton, eds., Woman's Coming of Age: A Symposium (New York, 1931), 44,46.

29. Pritchard, Polynesian Reminiscences, 393; Wilkes, Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition, n, 138; Turner, Nineteen Years in Polynesia, 285,336; Stuebel, Selections from Samoan Texts, 47 ff.; Brown, Melanesians and Polynesians, 266.

30. A. M. Noble and W. Evans, Codification of the Regulations and Orders for the Government of American Samoa (San Francisco, 1921), 25. For example, in 1927 a man named Peresetene, having been charged that he „did sleep with Ta'e, the wife of Patolo, in violation of Section 23,“ was fined $25, while Ta'e was fined $15; Archives, High Court of American Samoa, Fagatogo, Tutuila.

31. A. Calder-Marshall, The Innocent Eye: The Life of Robert J. Flaherty (London, 1963), 114; F. H. Flaherty, „Fa'aSamoa,“ Asia 25 (1925): 1098; F. G. Calkins, My Samoan Chief (Honolulu, 1975), 82.

32. L A. White, The Science of Culture (New York, 1949), 154; C. C. Marsack, letter to D. Freeman dated 1 April 1969; J. L Brenchley, Jottings during the Cruise of H.M.S. 'Curacoa,' among the South Seahlands in 1865 (London, 1873), 58. Mead's inaccurate portrayal of Samoan attitudes about adultery had misled a number of writers. As already noted, Bertrand Russell, in his still widely read Marriage and Morals (London, 1958; orig. 1929), 107, citing Mead, states quite erroneously that the Samoans, „when they have to go on a journey, fully expect their wives to console themselves for their absence“; while L. Malson, a French professor of social psychiatry, in L Malawi and J. Itard, Wolf Children: The Wild Boy of Aveyron (London, 1972), 25, has published the preposterous statement that the Samoans practice „conjugal hospitality.“

33. Police Records, Western Samoa, P.C. 947,1956 and P.C. 674, 1964.

34. Gerber, „The Cultural Patterning of Emotions in Samoa,“ 150; Police Records, Western Samoa, P.C. 3863, 1964; G. P. Mur-dock, Our Primitive Contemporaries (New York, 1934), 72.

35. Mead, Male and Female, 202; idem, „The Role of the Individual in Samoan Culture,“ Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 58 (1928): 487.

36. Mead, Social Organization of Manu'a, 227; idem, „The Sa-moans,“ in M. Mead, ed., Cooperation and Competition among Primitive Peoples (New York, 1937), 302; idem, Coming of Age, 93.

37. Fa'afouina Pula, The Samoan Dance of Life, 125; Archives, High Court of American Samoa, Fagatogo, Tutuila, American Samoa.

38. G. Piatt, Journal, 15 May 1836, L.M.S. Archives; Mead, Coming of Age, 95; Samoa Times, 29 December 1967.

39. Police Records, Western Samoa, P.C. 2197, 1960.

40. J. M. Macdonald, Rape: Offenders and Their Victims (Springfield, ILL, 1975), 25 ff.; Annual Report, Police and Prisons Department, Government of Western Samoa, 1966, Appendix A. According to American Samoa's Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1980, p. 129, the average number of forcible rapes per year during the years 1975-1980 was 14, which is equal to a rate of approximately 45 per 100,000.

41. In Coming of Age in Samoa, 151, Mead states categorically that there is no frigidity in Samoa. In fact, because of anxiety over rape, which in some cases results in phobic states, frigidity is indeed found among Samoan women, and as Holmes, Ta'û (Wellington, 1958), 55, correctly reports it, „often produces family tensions.“

42. G. Pratt, in a letter dated Matautu, Savai'i, 11 June 1845, L.M.S. Archives; Archives, High Court of American Samoa, Fagatogo, Tutuila, American Samoa; American Samoa. Hearings Before the Commission Appointed by the President of the United States (Washington, D.C., 1931), 391; A. M. Noble and E. Evans, Codification of the Regulations and Orders for the Government of American Samoa (San Francisco, 1921), 31.

43. In Male and Female, 193, Mead asserts that „we have no evidence that suggests that rape within the meaning of the act—that is, rape of a totally unwilling female—has ever become recognized social practice.“ Ironically, recognized social practice is exactly what rape, both surreptitious and forcible, has long been among the men of one of the societies Mead herself had studied—that of the Sa-moans.

44. Mead, Male and Female, 119; idem, „Cultural Contexts of Puberty and Adolescence,“ 62; idem, Coming of Age, 98.

45. J. Williams, „Narrative of a Voyage“; J. S. C. Dumont D'Ur-ville. Voyage au Pole Sud et dans VOcianie sur let Corvettes I'As-trolabe et la Zele4 pendant les Annees 1837-1840 (Paris, 1842), IV, 338; Turner, Nineteen Years in Polynesia, 188; Pritchard, Polynesian Reminiscences, 139; Brenchley, Jottings During the Cruise of UM-S. 'Curacoa,' 58 ff.; G. B. Rieman, Papalangee, or Uncle Sam in Samoa (Oakland, 1874); Brown, Melanesians and Polynesians, 122; Mead, Social Organization of Manu'a, 96.

46. M. Mead, „Weaver of the Border,“ in J. Casagrande, ed., In the Company of Man (New York, 1960), 189.

47. R. W. Robeon, Queen Emma (Sydney, 1965), 220 ff.; Mead, „Weaver of the Border,“ 188.

48. Mead, „The Sex Life of the Unmarried Adult in Primitive Society,“ 63; idem, Male and Female, 120. Holmes in his Ta'a, 53, echoing Mead, stated that „many a girl has been saved embarrassment by the substitution of a chicken bladder full of blood for that normally produced by a broken hymen.“ This, to the ornithologi-cally uninformed, may seem circumstantially convincing. However, as 0. C. Bradley, in The Structure of the Fowl (Edinburgh, 1960), 56, records, „the urinary organs of the fowl consist of two kidneys, each with a ureter, by which the semi-solid urine is conveyed to the cloaca.“ And so the chicken is without a bladder into which its blood might conveniently be put to solve an unreal enigma of Mead's own making.

17. Adolescence

1. R. Benedict, review of Coming of Age in Samoa, Journal of Philosophy 26 (1929): 110; M. Mead, „On the Implications for Anthropology of the Gesell-Ilg Approach to Maturation,“ American Anthropologist 49 (1947): 74; idem, „Cultural Contexts of Puberty and Adolescence,“ Bulletin of the Philadelphia Association for Psychoanalysis 9 (1959): 62; idem, „The Samoans,“ in M. Mead, e<L, Cooperation and Competition among Primitive Peoples (New York, 1937), 308; idem, „Adolescence in Primitive and Modem So-cietjf in V. F. Calverton and S. D. Schmalhausen, eds., The New Generation (London, 1930), 174; idem, „South Sea Hints on Bringing Up Children,“ Parents' Magazine 4 (1929): 20.

2. H. Katchadourian, The Biology of Adolescence (San Pran-riwo. 1977), 11; W. A. Lunden, Statistics on Delinquents and Delinquency (Springfield, 1964), 60; M. R. Haskell and L. Yablonsky, Juvenile Delinquency (Chicago, 1974), 63.

3. M. Mead, Blackberry Winter (New York, 1972), 196; idem, Growing Up in New Guinea, in M. Mead, From the South Seas (New York, 1939), 212; idem, Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies, in Mead, From the South Seas, 282.

4. M. Mead, Coming of Age in Samoa (New York, 1973), 169 ff.

5. Ibid., 171 ff.

6. Ibid., 165 ff.; E. Schultz, Proverbial Expressions of the Sa-moans (Wellington, 1965), 101.

7. H. S. Sandhu, Juvenile Delinquency (New York, 1977), 2; P. W. Tappan, Juvenile Delinquency (New York, 1949); D. J. West, The Young Offender (Harmondsworth, 1967), 15.

8. Mead, „The Samoans,“ 308; idem, Male and Female (Harmondsworth, 1962; orig. 1950), 99; H. A. Bloch and F. T. Flynn, Delinquency (New York, 1956), 37.

9. F. G. Calkins, My Samoan Chief (Honolulu, 1975), 18; F. Larkin, The Australian, 7 September 1971.

10. Katchadourian, The Biology of Adolescence, 43.

11. Police Records, Western Samoa, P.C. 1935, 1965.

12. M. Amir, „Forcible Rape,“ in L. G. Schultz, ed., Rape Victimology (Springfield, 1975), 52; J. P. Bush, Rape in Australia (Melbourne, 1977), 145.

13. W. Healy and A. F. Bronner, Delinquents and Criminals (New York, 1926), 256; H. Adler, F. Cahn, and J. Stuart, The Incidence of Delinquency in Berkeley, 1928-1932 (Berkeley, 1934); H. A. Bloch and F. T. Flynn, Delinquency (New York, 1956), 50; M. R. Haskell and L. Yablonsky, Juvenile Delinquency (Chicago, 1974), 63; D. Challinger, Young Offenders (Melbourne, 1977), 45.

14. C. Burt, The Young Delinquent (London, 1969; orig. 1925), 218; W. A. Lunden, Crimes and Criminals, (Ames, la., 1967), 117.

18. The Samoan Ethos

L M. Mead, „Weaver of the Border,“ in J. Casagrande, ed., In the Company of Man (New York, 1960), 189; idem, Growing Up in New Guinea, in From the South Seas (New York, 1939), 219, 234; idem, Coming of Age in Samoa, (New York, 1973), 198. Mead's assertion that in Samoa „strong allegiances are disallowed“ is untrue; cf. L. D. Holmes, Ta'ü (Wellington, 1958), 36, for an account of the intensity of sectarian intolerance in Manu'a.

2. Soloi's phrase was le 'o ni tagata ola; A. Wendt, Leaves of the Banyan Tree (London, 1980), 94.

3. J. A. C. Gray, Amerika Samoa (Annapolis, 1960), 208. Although Mead makes no direct reference to these historic happenings, she certainly knew of them. In Social Organization ofManu'a (Honolulu, 1930), 167, for example, she mentions a dream of „the high chief of Luma,“ Sotoa (she spells it Soatoa), which he had had «before the political trouble resulting from the attempt to reinstate the Tui Manu'a.“ Nowhere does she discuss the relevance of these crucial events to her depiction of the Samoan ethos.

4. D. Freeman, „A Happening Frightening to Both Ghosts and Men: A Case Study from Western Samoa,“ in N. Gunson, ed., The Changing Pacific (Melbourne, 1978), 163-173; N. A. Rowe, Samoa under the Sailing Gods (New York and London, 1930), 267.

5. B. Tripp, My Trip to Samoa (Cedar Rapids, la., 1911), 73; Gray, Amerika Samoa, 149; American Samoa. Hearings Before the Commission Appointed by the President of the United States (Washington, D.C., 1931), 76; Western Samoa (Report of the Royal Commission Concerning the Administration of) (Wellington, 1927).

6. Western Samoa, 354, 427; J. W. Davidson, Samoa mo Samoa: The Emergence of the Independent State of Western Samoa (Melbourne, 1967), 125.

7. Western Samoa, xliv; Rowe, Samoa under the Sailing Gods, 252, 278; Samoa Times, 18 January 1929; Davidson, Samoa mo Samoa, 138.

8. Howe, Samoa under the Sailing Gods, 274; for an account of the emergence of the independent state of Western Samoa see Davidson, Samoa mo Samoa; for an account of reconciliation see Freeman, „A Happening Frightening to Both Ghosts and Men,“ 172.

9. Thucydides, The Peloponnesian War, bk. HI, LXI1. cited in E. Sagan, The Lust to Annihilate: A Psychoanalytic Study of Violence in Ancient Greek Culture (New York, 1979), 173; R L. Stevenson, Vailima Papers (London, 1924), 71; A. Wendt, Pouhuli (Auckland, 1977), 17.

10. M. M. Lefkowitz, L. O. Walden, and L D. Eron, „Punishment, Identification and Aggression,“ in R. H. Walters et at, eds., Punishment: Selected Readings (Harmondsworth, 1972), 378; D. D. Woodman, „What Makes a Psychopath?'' New Society 53 (1980): W; M. Mackenzie, „More North American than the North Ameri-cans: Medical Consequences of Migrant Enthusiasm, Willing and Unwilled“ (Department of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, n.d.), 3.

c. C. Marsack, Samoan Medley (London, 1964), 25; T. Trood,

letter to W. Solf dated 6 February 1909, in C. G. R. McKay, A Chronology of Western Samoa (Apia, 1937), 33; G. Brown, An Autobiography (London, 1898), 34.

12. Wendt, Leaves of the Banyan Tree, 331; H. G. Wolff, Stress and Disease, 2nd ed. (Springfield, 1968), 218; H. Selye, The Stress of Life (New York, 1978), 259; S. S. Miller, ed., Symptoms (London, 1979), 322; L. Winter in The Milwaukee Journal, 13 March 1961, p. 11; B. P. Maclaurin, T. E. M. Wardill, S. T. Fa'aiuaso, and M. McKinnon, „Geographic Distribution of Peptic Ulcer Disease in Western Samoa,“ New Zealand Medical Journal 89 (1979): 341. As Wolff notes, the U.S. National Health Survey of 230,000 persons in 73,000 households during the years 1957-1969 revealed an average incidence of peptic ulcer of 5 percent in persons 25 and older.

13. J. Williams, „Narrative of a Voyage Performed in the Missionary Schooner 'Olive Branch,' 1832,“ L.M.S. Archives; J. E. Ers-kine, Journal of a Cruise among the Islands of the Western Pacific (London, 1853), 36; E. Sabatier, Astride the Equator: An Account of the Gilbert Islands (Melbourne, 1977), 92; R. L. Stevenson, in S. Colvin, ed., The Letters of Robert Louis Stevenson (London, 1899, 11,360.

19. Meaďs Misconstruing of Samoa

1. R. Benedict, „The Science of Custom,“ (1929), in V. F. Cal-verton, ed., The Making of Man (New York, 1931), 815; M. Mead, Social Organization ofManu'a (Honolulu, 1930), 83; idem, An Anthropologist at Work (New York, 1959), 212; idem, Coming of Age in Samoa (New York, 1973), 197.

2. L. Spier, „Some Central Elements in the Legacy,“ in W. Goldschmidt, ed., The Anthropology of Franz Boas, Memoirs, American Anthropological Association 89 (1959): 146; G. W. Stocking, Race, Culture and Evolution (New York, 1968), 303; A. L. Kroeber, „The Anthropological Attitude,“ American Mercury 13 (1928): 490; M. Harris, The Rise of Anthropological Theory (London, 1969), 427.

3. M. Mead, From the South Seas (New York, 1939), x.

4. M. Mead, „The Arts in Bali,“ Yale Review 30 (1940): 336; G. Keynes, ed., The Letters of Rupert Brooke (London, 1968) 525, 542.

5. J. Ferguson, Utopias of the Classical World (London, 1975), 14,16; G. Daws, A Dream of Islands (Milton, Queensland, 1980), 4;

I p. Hammond, ed., News from New Cythera: A Report of Bougainville's Voyage, 1766-1769 (Minneapolis, 1970), 27,44; M. Mead, „Americanization in Samoa,“ American Mercury 16 (1929): 269; idem, „Ltfe 88 a Samoan Girl,“ in All True! The Record of Actual Adventures that Have Happened to Ten Women of Today (New York, 1931), 99; idem, review of Samoa under the Sailing Gods by N. Rowe, The Nation 133 (1931): 138.

6. M. Mead, An Inquiry into the Question of Cultural Stability in Polynesia (New York, 1928), 7; idem, Blackberry Winter (New York, 1972), 132,138.

7. Mead, Social Organization of Manu'a, 55; idem, Coming of Age, 8,11.

8. A. Krftmer, Die Samoa-Inseln (Stuttgart, 1902-1903); R. L. Stevenson, A Footnote to History, in Vailima Papers (London, 1924); J. W. Davidson, Samoa mo Samoa (Melbourne, 1967); L Strong and L. Osbourne, Memories of Vailima (New York, 1902), 169; M. Mead, Blackberry Winter (New York, 1972), 154.

9. B. Malinowski, in R. F. Fortune, Sorcerers of Dobu (London, 1932), xix.

10. Mead, Social Organization of Manu'a, 4; idem, Coming of Age, vi; cf. P. J. Pelto and G. H. Pelto, Anthropological Research: The Structure of Inquiry, 2nd ed. (Cambridge, 1978), 75: „Participant observation is essential for checking and evaluating key-informant data.“

11. Mead, Blackberry Winter, 150 £f.; idem, Letters from the Field, 1925-1976 (New York, 1977), 55.

12. Mead, Blackberry Winter, 151; idem, Social Organization of Manu'a (Honolulu, 1969), xvii, 224.

13. B. Shore, „Sexuality and Gender in Samoa: Conceptions and Missed Conceptions,“ in S. Ortner and H. Whitehead, eds., Sexual Meanings (Cambridge, 1982), 213, n. 2; Mead, Social Organization of Manu'a (1969), 227.

14. Mead, Social Organization of Manu'a (1969), 228.

15. Mead, Coming of Age, 98; 160; idem, „Cultural Contexts of Puberty and Adolescence,“ Bulletin of the Philadelphia Associa-fon for Psychoanalysis 9 (1959): 62; idem, „The Sex Life of the Unearned Adult in Primitive Society,“ in I. S. Wile, ed. The Sex Life

Unmarried Adult (London, 1935), 61; idem, Male and Female (Harmondsworth, 1962), 119; idem, „Anthropology,“ in V. Robinson, Encyclopedia Sexualis (New York, 1936), 23.

16. E. R. Gerber, „The Cultural Patterning of Emotions in Samoa“ (Ph.D. diss., University of California, San Diego, 1975), 126; G. B. Milner. Samoan Dictionary (London, 1966), 205.

17. L. D. Holmes, „A Restudy of Manu'an Culture,“ (Ph.D. diss., Northwestern University, 1957), vii. The view advanced by Gerber's informants is commonplace among Samoans, as Nicholas von Hoffman recounts in his rumbustious account of American Samoa, Tales from the Margaret Mead Taproom (Kansas City, 1976), 97 ff. Having cited a paragraph from Mead's Coming of Age in Samoa ending with a reference to „the whisper of lovers, until the village rests till dawn,“ von Hoffman comments: „It's passages like that which have given the South Seas their dishy reputation, although you can find a lot of Samoans who'll tell you that Maggy is a crock. There are supposed to be a bunch of old ladies on the island who claim to be the little girls in Mead's book and who say that they just made up every kind of sexy story for the funny palagi lady because she dug dirt.“

18. M. Mead, „Apprenticeship Under Boas,“ in W. Goldschmidt, ed., The Anthropology of Franz Boas, Memoirs, American Anthropological Association 89 (1959): 29; J. R. Swanton, „The President Elect,“ Science 73 (1931): 148; R. H. Lowie, review of Race, Language and Culture by Franz Boas, Science 91 (1940): 599; idem, The History of Ethnological Theory (New York, 1937), 151; R. Benedict, Patterns of Culture (London, 1945; orig. 1934), 21.

19. P. D. MacLean, „The Evolution of Three Mentalities,“ in S. L Washburn and E. R. McCown, eds., Human Evolution: Biosocial Perspectives (Menlo Park, Calif., 1978), 47; A. Einstein, quoted in A. P. French, ed., Einstein: A Centenary Volume (London, 1979), 209.

20. K. R. Popper, Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge (London, 1969), vii, 16; cf. E. Gellner, Legitimation of Belief (Cambridge, 1974), 171: „Popper's theory is not a descriptive account of humanity's actual cognitive practice but rather a prescription, an ethic, which at the same time also singles out science from the rest of putative cognition and explains the secret of its success.“

20. Toward a More Scientific Anthropological Paradigm

1. C. Zirkle, Evolution, Marxian Biology and the Social Scene (Philadelphia, 1959), 447; G. W. Stocking, Race, Culture and Evolution (New York, 1968), 303. In using paradigm as a convenient term to refer to the disciplinary matrix of a science I do not accept

Kuhn's notion that paradigms are incommensurable. Rather I consider that a paradigm may be actively improved by the employment of what Popper has called „the critical method of error elimination“; cf. P. B. Meda war's comments on this issue in his Advice to a Young Scientist (London, 1981), 92: „As for revolutions, they are constantly in progress; a scientist does not hold exactly the same opinions about his research from one day to the next, for reading, reflection, and discussions with colleagues cause a change in emphasis here or there and possible even a radical appraisal of his way of thinking.“

2. M. E. Spiro, „Culture and Human Nature,“ in G. D. Spindler, ed., The Making of Psychological Anthropology (Berkeley, 1978), 350; F. Boas, „Genetic and Environmental Factors in Anthropology,“ The Teaching Biologist 9 (1939): 17; idem, „The Tempo of Growth in Fraternities“ (1935), in Race, Language and Culture (New York, 1940), 88; Stocking, Race, Culture, and Evolution, 184; F. Boas, Anthropology and Modern Life (New York, 1928), 201; A. L. Kroeber, „The Anthropological Attitude,“ American Mercury 13 (1928): 495; M. Mead, Growing Up in New Guinea, in From the South Seas (New.York, 1939), 212.

3. V. Reynolds, The Biology of Human Action (San Francisco, 1980), 89. In 1922, in the course of a British Association symposium on Darwinism, as part of a chorus of criticism by J. C. Willis and others, J. T. Cunningham gave it as his opinion that natural selection was „as extinct as the dodo“; Nature 110 (1922): 752. E. Mayr, Animal Species and Evolution (Cambridge, Mass., 1963), 1; F. Crick, Of Molecules and Men (Seattle and London, 1966), 52; P. Jay, „Mother-Infant Relations in Langurs,“ in H. Rheingold, ed., Maternal Behavior in Mammals (New York, 1963), 286; E. H. Lenneberg, Biological Foundations of Language (New York, 1967), 28,128 ff.; H. J. Muller, „The Gene Material as the Initiator and Organizing Basis of Life,“ in R. A. Brink, ed., Heritage from Mendel (Madison, Wis., 1967), 443.

4. J. Z. Young, Programs of the Brain (London, 1978), 10 ff.; D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, „Functional Architecture of Macaque Monkey Visual Cortex,“ Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 198 (1977): 1; for a summary of H. F. R. Prechtl's researches see I. Eibl-Eibesfeldt, Ethology: The Biology of Behavior (New York, 1975), 445 ff.; idem, „Human Ethology: Concepts and Implications for the Sciences of Man,“ The Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (1979): 1.

5. A. L. Kroeber, „On Human Nature“ (1955), in An Anthropologist Looks at History (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1963), 204; M. von Cranach et al., eds., Human Ethology: Claims and Limits of a New Discipline (Cambridge, 1979); I. Eibl-Eibesfeldt, The Biology of Peace and War (London, 1979), 15 (as Eibl-Eibesfeldt notes, the ethologist's recognition of phylogenetically programmed behavior does not deny the influence of experience on such behavior, for „both reinforcing and inhibitory influences can be exercised“); A. Montagu, in The Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (1979): 43.

6. C. H. Waddington, „The Human Evolutionary System,“ in M. Banton, ed., Darwinism and the Study of Society (London, 1961), 70; P. B. Medawar, „Unnatural Science,“ The New York Review of Books 24 (1977): 14; idem, 'Technology and Evolution,“ in Frontiers of Knowledge (New York, 1975), 109.

7. J. T. Bonner, The Evolution of Culture in Animals (Princeton, 1980).

8. E. Mayr, „Behavior Programs and Evolutionary Strategies“ (1974), in Evolution and the Diversity of Life: Selected Essays (Cambridge, Mass., 1976), 694 ff.; K. R. Popper, „Natural Selection and the Emergence of Mind“ (First Darwin Lecture, delivered at Darwin College, Cambridge, 8 November 1977); Bonner, The Evolution of Culture in Animals, 144 ff.; K. Lorenz, Behind the Mirror (London, 1977), 175. For further discussion of the anthropological significance of multiple choice behavior, cf. D. Freeman, „The Anthropology of Choice,“ Canberra Anthropology 4 (1981): 82.

9. Bonner, The Evolution of Culture in Animals, 19.

10. M. Mead, „Retrospects and Prospects,“ in T. Gladwin and W. C. Sturtevant, eds., Anthropology and Human Behavior (Washington, D.C., 1962), 121; R. Benedict, Patterns of Culture (London, 1945; orig. 1934), 57; F. Nietzsche, The Birth of Tragedy (New York, 1956; orig. 1872), 34; J. E. Harrison, Themis (London, 1963), 443.

11. Extreme biological determinism, or geneticism, has also survived into the 1980s; cf. the characterization of geneticism as „the enthusiastic misapplication of not fully understood genetic principles in situations to which they do not apply,“ in P. B. and J. S. Medawar, The Life Science: Current Ideas of Biology (London, 1977), 38.


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